Airmanship1

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Reigate Grammar School
ACP 34 V1 – Airmanship I
Learning Objectives
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Chapter 1 - Airfields
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Identify the features and facilities found on an Airfield
List and compare the 3 main airfield types
State how airfield runways are aligned
State the significance of the two digit numbers found on the ends of runway
Name the main features of a modern “Main Instrument Runway” type airfield
State the main function of a RHAG and what the abbreviation stands for
Identify and state the functions of the following facilities:
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Overrun Areas
Arrester Barriers
ORPs
ASPs
Taxiway
Dispersals
Windsocks
Airfield identifying letters
Explain how hazards such as specialist vehicles are identified on an airfield
State the function of Approach Lighting
Airfield- an area including buildings and support installations used
for the accommodation, take-off and landing of aircraft.
Airport – an airfields with added facilities for freight and
passengers
Aircraft manoeuvring areas – parts of the airfield which have
specially prepared for the movement of aircraft on the ground (
taxiways, runways, aircraft servicing platforms.
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The wind direction and
length of runway are
important
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Present trend – one long
runway or at most 2, with
longer one being designated
the ‘main instrument runway’
(in line with prevailing wind,
lighting, radio installations
and safety equipment)
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3 types or Airfields
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Basic Grass Airfield
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Triangular patterned
runway
Modern main
instrument runway
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Figure 1.1
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Construction – concrete
or layers of asphalt
Dimensions – vary
according to role
Typical RAF airfield –
45 m wide and 1.8 km
long or more)
Subsidiary runways –
same width but not as
long
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For Transport aircraft to
operate
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60 m wide
2.7 km long
Fig 1-2
Markings
Colour
Taxiways–yellow markings
Runway Numbers
 The number indicates the
magnetic headings of the runway
direction (nearest 10 )
Examples
 238– runway No. 24
 058 – runway no. 06
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The magnetic heading is taken
from the direction of approach.
Therefore the heading for one end
of the runway is 180 different
from the other
Fig 1-2
Markings
Threshold Markings
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Centre-Line and Side-Stripe
markings
Runway threshold- longitudinal white
lines painted symmetrically about the
runway centre-line
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Indicated as a broken white
line (arrowheads in the sterile
area)
Chevrons and a bar are added when
threshold is moved up runway
because of obstruction. Therefore
aircraft are at safe height when it
 Side-stripe markings are
crosses obstruction
Beginning of runway before the
threshold markings is known as the
‘sterile area’
added to runways which have
little contrast between the
runway and the surrounding
area
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Arrester Gear
Brings aircraft to a stop in a
short distance
Aircraft needs a hook to
engage cables
RAF use RHAG – Rotary
Hydraulic Arrester Gear –
large paddles rotating in
liquid
Over-Run Areas and Arrester
Barriers
 Where space permits
 Over-run areas, clear of
obstacles and with a
reasonably even surface
 Can also have barriers
consisting of large strong
nets made of nylon rope
which can be raised and
lowered
Operational Readiness
Platforms
 Specially prepared
areas (for fighters and
strike aircraft) built
alongside the end of a
runway
 Used for parking
aircraft for rapid take-off
(‘scramble’)or for final
flight preparation
Dispersal Hardstandings
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The aim is to spread
the aircraft around the
airfield, to make it more
difficult for enemy
aircraft to damage or
destroy all the parked
aircraft during an attack
Aircraft Servicing
Platforms (ASPs)
Large paved areas for the
servicing and turnaround of aircraft.
Taxiways
Connect all the various
parts of the aircraft
manoeuvring area and
enable aircraft to move
about easily (minimum
of 15m wide)
Taxiway markings
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Centre line- broken yellow line
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Edge marking – dashed yellow line - where there is little
contrast between the taxiway and the surrounding area
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Holding position- At a junction of a taxiway with a runway,
taxiing aircraft are required to ‘hold’ until it is safe to move onto
the runway. Indicated by two yellow lines, one solid and one
broken. It is painted at right angles to the taxiways centre line
and 70m from the nearest edge of the runway. The holding
position sign displays the runway number in black on a yellow
background (old) or white on a red background (new)
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Windsock
Normally there are two or
more windsocks on an
airfield to provide a quick
and easy way of indicating
wind direction
Positioned away from trees
and buildings which may
cause local wind turbulence
The principle windsock has
a white ring round its base
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Obstructions
May be permanent (building)
or temporary (mechanical
digger)
Clearly marked by day and
night
Vehicles may be painted
with red and white squares
and have yellow roofs or be
equipped with a flashing
amber or blue lights
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Airfield Identification
Each airfield is identified by
means of two letters. (i.e SY
for Shawsbury)
Displayed in a ‘signal
square’ close to the ATC
tower
Identification beacons flash
the same letters in Morse
Code
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Airfield lighting
Lights are designed to assist
pilots to taxi aircraft safely
and to take-off and land on
the runway in use
Many of the lights will be
hooded so that they can only
be seen from a certain
angle.
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The main types of lighting are:
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Airfield Identification Beacon- flashed the airfield identification letters in
Morse code using a high intensity red light.
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Obstruction Lights – All high buildings, towers, hangers, both on and in the
vicinity of the airfield, are marked by red obstruction lights
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Flood lighting- ASPs are often lit by powerful flood lights set on pylons
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Holding position – these signs are illuminated at night by their own internal
lighting
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Taxiway Lights – less than 18m wide, marked by blue edge lights along
each side- 18m or more are marked only along the centre line and the lights
are green
Approach Lighting
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Approach lighting- installed outside the airfield boundary and often set
on poles, to form a special pattern (see picture) This pattern helps the
pilot judge the aircraft’s height and to line up with the runway on the
approach to land. In poor visibility or a night it helps the pilot to find
the approach path visually towards the end of a radio or radarcontrolled approach.
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Threshold lights- marked by a row of green lights across the runway at
the touchdown end. Plus ‘wings’ of three green lights on each side of
the runway. ‘wings’ are omitted if the threshold is displaced up the
runway.
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Runway lights- Main runway have high-intensity unidirectional edge
lights. Plus come omnidirectional edge lights to help pilots in the circuit
judge their position.
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Sample questions
Answers
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Chapter 2 – The Tutor
2.1 Name the units which operate the Grob Tutor aircraft for Air Cadet
2.2 Describe the Tutor’s basic configuration
2.3 Describe the materials covering the surfaces
2.4 Name the engine and the type and amount of the fuel used in the
Tutor
2.5 Explain the starting method used with this engine
2.6 Explain the need for entering the aircraft using the walking strips
2.7 Name the 6 basic aircraft instruments
2.8 Identify and explain the function of the aircraft primary flying
controls
2.9 Name the 3 basic engine instruments
2.10 Identify and explain the function of the engine controls
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We fly at 6AEF – air experience flight at RAF Benson
AEFs are equipped with GROB Tutor aircraft
They are single engined, low winged monoplanes.
They hold 33 gallons of aviation gasoline in two
tanks in the wings (2 ½ flying hours) (some fast jets use
this amount of fuel taxiing to the end of the runway)
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They are equipped with a 180 hp Lycoming engine
and can fly at a maximum of 185 kts
Other features
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Steerable nose wheel – brakes are on the
two main wheels
Side-by side seating with dual controlspilot/cadet can have full control – cadets are
in the left seat
Body made of carbon reinforced plasticmust walk of the marked ‘walking strip’
provided (on wing)
Other features
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2 radios - air- to - ground
- air- to - air
One UHF and one VHF band
DO NOT INTERFERE WITH ANY SETTINGS
TOUCH NOTHING IN THE COCKPIT
‘Instruments’ – indicate what the
aircraft is doing
Atitude Indicator
-Nose up/ down
-Banked left/right
Airspeed Indicator
-Calibrated in knots
Altimeter
-Aircrafts height above preset datum
-3 hands – one hundreds, one thousands, one 10 thousands
-Read carefully
Rate of Climb &
Descent Indicator
-Vertical Speed Indicator
-Rate of Climbing or descending
Turn & Slip
Indicator
-Rate at which aircraft is turning
-The direction of turn- if skidding or slipping
Horizontal Situation
Indicator
Synchronised with compass
Tells heading
‘Controls’ – used to manoeuvre the
aircraft
Control Column ‘stick’
Ailerons
Ailerons on wings
‘Rolling Plane’
-Move left (port) and right (starboard)
Control Column ‘stick’
Elevators
Elevator on tail
‘Pitching Plane’
-Move up and down
Rudder Pedals
-at pilot’s feet
-causes aircraft to ‘Yaw’
-Used to turn without banking
-Used during aerobatics or to maintain
balanced flight
Engine Instruments
RPM
Revolutions per second
20 gives 2,000 rpm
Manifold Pressure
How much power is being supplied
by the engine
(responds to throttle movements)
Temperature and
Pressures
Of engine
Engine Controls
Throttle
Pushed forward increases engine
output
RPM Control
Blue lever to right of throttle
- rpm of engine
- efficiency of propeller
Mixture Control
Red lever next to RPM
-fuel/air ratio
Other Controls
Wheel Brakes
Left of right to control steering on
ground while taxiing in confined areas
-both used to brake
Flaps
Used on approach to landing
-To lower approach speed (safety)
-- To lower nose attitude- better vision
-Located on rear inner edge of each
wing
Elevator Trimmer
To make fine adjustments to elevator
so that aircraft can be flown at
selected pitch attitude with pressure
on the stick
Sample Questions
Answers
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Chapter 3 – Pre-flight briefing – Air Experience Flying in Tutors
3.1 Understand the purpose and importance of the pre-flight briefing
3.2 Understand the importance of awareness and lookout on the airfield
3.3 State the initial aim of Air Experience Flying (AEF)
3.4 Describe how to fit adjust and release the parachute
3.5 Describe the Life Preserver and its contents
3.6 Describe how to operate the Aircraft safety harness
3.7 State the actions to be taken in an emergency
3.8 State the actions to be taken when the order “JUMP JUMP” is given
3.9 Understand the importance of checking for foreign object
3.10 State when a cadet is permitted to touch/operate any controls or
equipment in the aircraft
3.11 Understand the dangers associated with aircraft propellers
3.12 State the actions to be taken if a cadet has any cold or flu like symptoms
Pre-flight Briefing
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A successful flight is dependent on
preparation by the captain and crew before
take-off.
They must understand the objective of the
flight in order to make it safe and efficient.
A Nimrod brief many take many hours,
whereas a short flight in a simple aircraft in a
local area, would only require a short brief.
Your Responsibility
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To learn about Airfields and
Instruments/Controls in the Tutor
To listen carefully to the film before your flight
Stay in party and keep a look out.
Your Briefing at AEF
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The aim of the exercise
Fitting and operation of parachutes
Fitting and operation of protective helmet
Fitting and operation of aircraft safety harness
Checking for loose articles
Action to be taken in an emergency – abandoning aircraft
Can/Cannot touch in Aircraft
Basic Operation of aircraft radio
The local flying area
Weather conditions
Precaution of the ground in aircraft manoeuvring area
Medical aspects of flying
Aim of the exercise
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Initially - to introduce you to the aircraft and
familiarise you with the cockpit environment
Effect of some of the aircraft controls
May have a chance to fly the aircraft
As experience is gained – other aspects will
be introduced, such as turning and
aerobatics
Parachute
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Back type – parachute, 2 leg straps, chest
strap connecting the shoulder straps and rip
chord and handle
Fitting
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Connect chest strap first
Leg straps individually- between legs and clip fasteners
to rings situated at waist level outside hip joints
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Adjustment – lengthen and shortening 4
adjuster straps.
Method of release – Quick release
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Release chest strap first
Slide metal cover sideways using the thumb catches to
unlock the two halves
Then release leg straps
Aircraft Safety Harness
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Attached to air craft
It is to ensure that you stay in seat of aircraft when
inverted, plus it provides crash protection!
5 adjustable straps – 2 shoulder, 2 lap and 1 from
centre of seat with quick release box at free end.
Fitting – loosen adjustable flap straps and insert 4
adjustable harness lugs
Aircraft Safety Harness
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Adjustment –
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Pull on free ends of lap strap tightly at possible
Pull down shoulder straps
Finally the 5th strap is tightened – negative G strap
Method of release – depress yellow thumb
catch then turn knob 60 left or right
Loose Article Check
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Loose articles – if dropped in cockpit could
lead to dangerous situation if not recovered
Numerous accidents are blamed on foreign
objects left by careless people
They foul flying controls and cause serious
accidents
Remove all objects from pockets before
If you drop something report it!
Action in an Emergency
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DO NOT PANIC
DO AS YOU ARE TOLD
You must know what to do if the
decision is made to abandon the
aircraft
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They will give the warning order ‘Check
Parachutes’
They will jettison the canopy- if not pull
back handle- push release – canopy may
need to be pushed off with hands
They will give the order ‘JUMP JUMP’
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On given the order to ‘JUMP LUMP’
Release the Aircraft Safety Harness Not your
parachute!– Turn it 90 degrees either way Stand up in the cockpit and dive head first over the
trailing edge of the wing
When clear of the aircraft pull the metal ‘D Ring’
attached to the rip cord – (it comes out a long so be
sure to pull it to its fullest extent)
Bend your legs and roll on landing
Precautions on the ground
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Keep alert with your eyes and ears open
when walking about
Beware of propeller discs
Keep a good look out for moving aircraft at
all times and move only where you are told
you may go
Medical Aspects
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As altitude increases the air pressure reduces
The human body normally adjusts without difficulty
However, with a cold, discomfort may well be
experienced in the ears and sinuses
Blocked tubes can prevent pressures form
equalising or your ears form clearing, sometimes
with painful results
RAF aircrew do not fly in these circumstances and
you must not do so either
Sample Questions
Answers
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Chapter 4 – VGS and Gliding
4.1 State the medical and physical requirements before being
allowed to glide
4.2 State the age requirements for solo cadet flying
4.3 Describe how team work is fundamental to cadet gliding
4.4 State the location of gliders airbrakes and explain their
function
4.5 Name the instruments in a glider cockpit
4.6 State the glider launch orders and explain their meaning
4.7 Describe in simple terms soaring flight
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We glide at 615 VGS in Kenley
It provides glider training for cadets
The Viking glider has tandem seating for the
crew with dual controls, the instructor
occupying the rear seat
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Physical limitations
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Minimum weight for gliding is 48kg
Maximum weight for gliding is 103 kg
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You begin to gliding with a gliding induction course
(GIC) or air experience gliding (AEG)
Opportunities for pilot training will follow on the
gliding scholarship (GS) course, and cadets who
show an aptitude for gliding are able to fly solo at or
above the age of 16 years
After flying solo there are opportunities to carry out
your advanced gliding training (AGT) and some may
eventually become Flight Staff Cadets and gliding
instructors
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When you go gliding at 615 VGS, individuals
are given clearly defined duties, which they
must carry out responsibly!
This is so that gliders can be launched safely
and, after landing, brought back to the launch
point.
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Glider’s controls and control surfaces are like those of a
conventional aircraft.
In addition, winch gliders have
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A yellow toggle which the pilot pulls to release the cable when the
glider has reached the top of the launch
A lever to operate the air brakes
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Air Brakes
When extended they
increase the drag and
reduce the lift, allowing the
glider to descend more
quickly without increasing
the speed.
This allows the pilot to land
in a much smaller space
than would otherwise be
possible
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Seat Harness
A five point harness fitted to
each seat
Occupants can strap
themselves securely to the
seat
Flight Instruments
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A glider is normally flown by
visual reference to the
horizon
However, four flight
instruments are fitted for
accuracy
1. Airspeed indicator
2. Altimeter
3. Turn and slip indicator
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4. Variometer
Specific to gliders
Purpose is to indicate
whether the glider is
losing or gaining height.
It is invaluable in
helping the pilot find
rising air, and to stay in
it to prolong the flight
Launching
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A glider has no engine
and must be
accelerated to its flying
speed some other way
The most common
method is the winch
launch
Rarely aero-towing is
used
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The winch
A drum on which is
wound about 1500m of
strong flexible steel
cable
The drum is turned by a
powerful engine which
the winch driver
controls through an
automatic gearbox
‘ALL OUT’ for Take Off
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Winch is located close to the upwind boundary of the
airfield
Cable is attached to the rear of a motor vehicle and
drawn out to the launch point
When the pilot is ready the cable it attached to the
glider
The pilot checks there is no hazard from behind, by
asking the wing tip holders (YOU!)
‘ALL
CLEAR ABOVE AND BEHIND’
Then Calls ‘TAKE UP SLACK’
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The winch driver is signalled using either lamp signals or radio
On receiving the signal the winch driver slowly reels in the cable
until it is taut
When the pilot is ready he will order ‘ALL OUT’
The signaller signals the winch driver who opens the winch throttle
to wind the cable in
The cable pulls the glider forward and after a short distance it
become airborne
Initially the glider climbs gently, but the attitude quickly steepens
When the cable is about 70 to the horizontal, the pilot releases it
and is then free to commence the gliding exercise
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Winch driver
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When released the cable falls to earth, steadied by a
small parachute
It is then reeled in by the winch driver for the next
launch
The height gained by the glider depends on wind
speed, speed at which the cable is being wound and
the length of the cable being used
A rough estimate - 1,000m cable gives a 1,000m
launch height and a launch last 4 to 10 minutes.
Soaring and Thermals
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Soaring is the art of finding rising air and , then using
it to gain height, thus prolonging the flight.
Thermals are caused by uneven heating of the earth
on hot, sunny days.
Green fields, woods and lakes do not heat up rapidly
Concrete or tarmac areas will become much hotter
than the surrounding green fields
The air over the concrete will therefore rise (like a
hot air balloon); this rising air is called a Thermal
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Thermals are not continuous- the warm air being
released in the form of bubbles which rise at
intervals like invisible air balloons
A cumulus clouds give pilots a good idea of where
thermals are forming.
If thermal activity is suspected the pilot will keep an
eye on the variometer and when he finds rising air
the pilot will try to circle in it and gain height
This requires considerable skill and experience to
get maximum use of thermals
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Rising air can also be found on the windward side of
hills
When the surface wind strikes the face of a hill or
ridge it will be deflected upwards, becoming an upcurrent
Sample Questions
Answers
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Chapter 5 – Gliding – Vigilant
5.1 Describe the characteristics of self launching gliders
5.2 State the engine used to power
5.3 State the type of fuel used and the tank capacity
5.4 State what the abbreviation SSR stands for
5.5 Identify the airbrakes, and the cockpit controls used to operate
them
5.6 Explain the need of pre-use checks
5.7 Explain the need for using Flight Reference Cards (FRCs)
5.8 State the need to carry out a prop check prior to engine start
5.9 State the checks carried out during taxiing
5.10 State the height at which exercises begins
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The vigilant differs from other gliders in that it has an engine
and propeller so that it can be launched itself.
It can be flown by allowing the engine to idle or by shutting
down the engine.
It is used to train cadets in the effect of controls, climbing,
gliding, turning, stalling, circuit flying, approach and landing.
The glider will soar with reasonable soaring conditions.
The engine is not powerful enough for rapid climbing. (5 min to
reach 2,000ft)
Reduced ground handling time means more airborne time.
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Engine – GROB 2500
E1
Direct drive to a 2
bladed variable pitch
propeller with 3 settings
A 100-litre (22 gallon)
fuel tank is mounted in
the fuselage behind the
pilot’s seat.
Radio
Checks
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Fig 4.4
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Fig 4-7
Area of
exercise
picture
Answers
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