A/C Handling Pt 6

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AIRCRAFT HANDLING
Part 6
General Flying
General Flying
Before taxiing onto the runway a pilot must:
22
Complete his Vital Actions
Receive permission from the controller
Check that the approach is clear
Test the flying controls for motion & response
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AIRCRAFT
SERVICING
PLATFORM
TAXI
WAY
General Flying
Taxiing for take-off,
the pilot stops at the Holding Point,
a white line across the taxiway,
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From here the pilot has a good view
of the runway and final approach.
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AIRCRAFT
SERVICING
PLATFORM
TAXI
WAY
Holding Position
& Holding Board
General Flying
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At the holding point,
light aircraft pilots turn their aircraft
about 45 degrees into wind,
to complete their pre take-off checks.
Wind
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AIRCRAFT
SERVICING
PLATFORM
TAXI
WAY
Holding Position
& Holding Board
General Flying
Close to the runway holding position
is the runway controller’s caravan.
22
His duty is to scrutinize aircraft about to take-off,
checking for signs of danger
such as loose panels, fuel leaks, oil leaks,
and hydraulic leaks.
Wind
22
AIRCRAFT
SERVICING
PLATFORM
TAXI
WAY
Holding Position
& Holding Board
Take Offs
Wind is a crucial factor affecting take-off,
and take-off is normally made into the wind.
22
As the aircraft lines up,
any headwind along the runway
will serve to shorten the take-off run.
Wind
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AIRCRAFT
SERVICING
PLATFORM
TAXI
WAY
Take Offs
22
A 20 knot headwind along the runway
will be indicated as 20 kts
on the aircraft’s
airspeed indicator (ASI).
20kt wind
22
AIRCRAFT
SERVICING
PLATFORM
TAXI
WAY
Take Offs
Wind velocity produces a steeper
angle of climb after becoming airborne.
G/S = 80kts
IAS = 80kts
No wind
G/S = 0kts
IAS = 0kts
500ft
1 minute
G/S = 60kts
IAS = 80kts
20kt wind
500ft
1 minute
G/S = 0kts
IAS = 20kts
Take Offs
The length of the take-off run depends on:
All-up weight
More weight means more lift,
which means more speed gained
by increasing run up.
Amount of flap
Higher co-efficient of lift enables the aircraft
to take off at a lower Indicated Air Speed (IAS)
Engine power
Greater thrust means faster take off.
Runway gradient
Uphill = less acceleration = longer take-off.
Take Offs
The length of the take-off run depends on:
Runway surface
Moisture, mud, grass, pot holes,
all increase friction,
decrease acceleration & increase take off.
Air temperature
High air temp reduces the air density
reducing lift at a given airspeed.
Thrust can be reduced by
4%- 5% per 5ºC above 15ºC.
Airfield elevation
Reduced air density at
altitude increases the length of take-off.
The Circuit
Aircraft may be taking off
and completing the circuit to practice landings.
To reduce congestion and risk of collision,
aircraft should enter the circuit in a planned
and systematic manner.
Take off
Finals
18
00
‘Dead’ side
Wind
The Circuit
Downwind leg
The Circuit
The pilot approaches the airfield,
looking-out for other aircraft.
After clearance, he will join overhead
at a minimum height of 1000 ft
above circuit height.
18
00
‘Dead’ side
Wind
The Circuit
Downwind leg
The Circuit
The pilot lets down on the ‘dead’ side
in a wide curve,
to reach the start of
the downwind leg at circuit height.
18
00
‘Dead’ side
Wind
The Circuit
Downwind leg
The Circuit
Pre-landing checks are completed
on the DOWNWIND leg
18
00
‘Dead’ side
Wind
The Circuit
Downwind leg
The Circuit
On approach, flaps are lowered
to give a steeper descent for a set speed,
a lower stalling speed and a better view
over the nose of the aircraft.
‘Dead’ side
18
00
Finals
Wind
The Circuit
Downwind leg
The Circuit
It must be remembered on approach
that when the throttle is opened,
a jet engine does not respond as quickly
as a piston engine.
‘Dead’ side
18
00
Finals
Wind
The Circuit
Downwind leg
The Landing
To land the aircraft the pilot changes
the descending path of the approach
to one level with, and just above,
the ground.
This is known as the
‘round out’.
Runway
The Landing
The aircraft is then flown
parallel to the ground,
with increasing angle of attack
and falling airspeed,
until touchdown.
This is known as the
‘hold-off’ or ‘float’.
Runway
The Landing
Landing a nose-wheel aircraft,
the nose-wheel should be held off the ground
until after the main wheels touch.
Runway
The Landing
With tail wheel aircraft,
all three wheels should touch the ground together
– a three point touchdown.
Runway
Check of Understanding
What do light aircraft normally do
at the runway holding point?
Turn downwind
Shut down their engines
Turn into the wind
Stop heading along the taxiway
Check of Understanding
If an aircraft is positioned ready for take-off
and the headwind is 30 kts,
what will be indicated on the ASI?
Zero
60 kts
20 kts
30 kts
Check of Understanding
What is the opposite side of
an aerodrome's downwind side known as?
Dead side
Upwind side
Finals side
Approach side
Check of Understanding
When the throttle of a jet engine is opened
the engine responds:
Slower than a piston engine
The same as a piston engine
Faster than a piston engine
Slower if the temperature is higher
Check of Understanding
In the landing phase,
What is the point called where the pilot
changes the descending path of the approach
to one level with, and just above,
the ground is called:
The hold-up
The hold-off
The round-out
The round-up
Check of Understanding
In the landing phase
what is the period in which the aircraft
is flown parallel to the ground
with increasing angle of attack and
falling airspeed to the touchdown point called?
The touch point or float
The hold-up or float
The float point or touch
The hold-off or float
Check of Understanding
When landing a nose-wheel aircraft
when should the nose-wheel
touch the ground?
Behind the main wheels
Before the main wheels
With the main wheels
After the main wheels
AIRCRAFT HANDLING
End of Presentation
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