GCSE theory (trainign effects)

GCSE Theory
Training Effects
Warm up and Cool Down
Warm up & Cool Down
 Body
needs to be prepared for
physical exercise
 We should not expect the body
systems to adapt instantly or without
 Nor should we expect the body
systems to return to normal
immediately after exercise.
Warm Up
Warm up is not only important as
preparation for a good performance, but
is a crucial element in the avoidance of
Warm up
Basic requirements of a warm up are:
 Pulse rate should be raised to the level
required for full activity.
 Stretching and mobility exercises should
be used to stimulate joint flexibility.
 Warm up should include skills and
movements that are part of the activity.
 The performer(s) should focus mentally on
the activity ahead.
Warm up
For example, stretching
and mobility exercises
stimulate joint
flexibility in joints
most likely to be used
in the activity.
Warm up environment
should be as close as
possible to that of the
Pg. 107 Q3
Warm up
An example of a general warm up could be
as follows:
Flexibility exercises at the start of the session.
Pulse raising exercises which may be specific to
a sport.
More specific flexibility exercises, which may be
specific to a sport.
Higher levels of exercises using the major
muscle groups to maintain and/or raise the
heart rate.
Skills or exercises for the sport
Using a chosen sport
or activity,
compose a specific
warm up using the
general warm up
guidelines on the
previous slides.
Cool Down
A gradual and controlled cool down
helps in achieving the most affective
recovery from physical exertion:
Continued blood flow allows the pulse rate to
return gradually to normal level.
Lactic acid is removed from the muscle tissue and
carbon dioxide is removed via the blood stream
and respiratory system.
An abrupt stop in activity causes blood pooling in
the muscle tissues and slows down the removal
of waste products.
Training effects
Exercise can have 2 types of effects on our
physiological system;
Short term effects of exercise
Physiological changes following the onset of
exercise (therefore includes the period of any
warm up).
 Long term effects of exercise
Regarded as more permanent changes (assuming
training/activity does not stop).
Short term effects of exercise
 Breathing rate rises quickly stimulated by the
nervous system and responds to the demand
for more oxygen as exercise starts.
 Air is drawn into the lungs as the muscles
involved in breathing work harder.
 Increased volume of air delivers more oxygen
to the blood stream and then to the working
Short term effects of exercise
Pulse rate
 The nervous system triggers and automatic
response to exercise, therefore increasing
the heart rate. A greater volume of blood
carrying oxygen can be pumped around the
body to work in muscles.
Short term effects of exercise
 Increase in circulation of blood flow
as a direct consequence or an
increase in pulse rate (to meet
increased demand of oxygen in the
 Major blood vessels dilate.
 Blood vessels not directly involved in
activity constrict.
Short term effects of exercise
 Increased blood flow ensures greater supply
of oxygen to muscle tissues, ligaments and
tendons involved in the activity.
 Blood vessels in active muscles will dilate in
order to accommodate increased blood flow in
 Blood temperature will rise producing a more
efficient muscle action.
Ref. Figure 18 p.123
Short term effects of exercise
 Produced as a normal build up to
body heat acts as a cooling
 Evaporation of sweat contributes to
body cooling.
 Sweat glands or skin pores helps
removed waste products from the
Long term effects of exercise
Effects on general well being
A fitter body is accompanied by an
improved sense of well being.
 Improved physical fitness
 Better, healthier appetite
 Improved regular sleep patterns
 Fewer minor ailments or illnesses
 Better able to fully enjoy normal life
Long term effects of exercise
Improved sense of well being founded
in positive attitude to many aspects
of life.
 More regular lifestyle habits
 Being less prone to stress and strains
 Improved self image
 Improved relationship with others
Long Term effects of exercise
Long term training
programme will
have long term
effects on the;
 Heart
 Circulatory system
 Breathing
 Body composition
 Muscles
 Rate of recovery
Further Reading refer to pgs 122-125,
OCR Textbook.