GCSE Theory Training Effects Warm up and Cool Down Warm up & Cool Down Body needs to be prepared for physical exercise We should not expect the body systems to adapt instantly or without injury. Nor should we expect the body systems to return to normal immediately after exercise. Warm Up Warm up is not only important as preparation for a good performance, but is a crucial element in the avoidance of injury. Warm up Basic requirements of a warm up are: Pulse rate should be raised to the level required for full activity. Stretching and mobility exercises should be used to stimulate joint flexibility. Warm up should include skills and movements that are part of the activity. The performer(s) should focus mentally on the activity ahead. Warm up Specific Proximity For example, stretching and mobility exercises stimulate joint flexibility in joints most likely to be used in the activity. Warm up environment should be as close as possible to that of the competition/activity. Pg. 107 Q3 Warm up An example of a general warm up could be as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Flexibility exercises at the start of the session. Pulse raising exercises which may be specific to a sport. More specific flexibility exercises, which may be specific to a sport. Higher levels of exercises using the major muscle groups to maintain and/or raise the heart rate. Skills or exercises for the sport Task Using a chosen sport or activity, compose a specific warm up using the general warm up guidelines on the previous slides. Cool Down A gradual and controlled cool down helps in achieving the most affective recovery from physical exertion: Continued blood flow allows the pulse rate to return gradually to normal level. Lactic acid is removed from the muscle tissue and carbon dioxide is removed via the blood stream and respiratory system. An abrupt stop in activity causes blood pooling in the muscle tissues and slows down the removal of waste products. Training effects Exercise can have 2 types of effects on our physiological system; Short term effects of exercise Physiological changes following the onset of exercise (therefore includes the period of any warm up). Long term effects of exercise Regarded as more permanent changes (assuming training/activity does not stop). Short term effects of exercise Breathing Breathing rate rises quickly stimulated by the nervous system and responds to the demand for more oxygen as exercise starts. Air is drawn into the lungs as the muscles involved in breathing work harder. Increased volume of air delivers more oxygen to the blood stream and then to the working muscles. Short term effects of exercise Pulse rate The nervous system triggers and automatic response to exercise, therefore increasing the heart rate. A greater volume of blood carrying oxygen can be pumped around the body to work in muscles. Short term effects of exercise Circulation Increase in circulation of blood flow as a direct consequence or an increase in pulse rate (to meet increased demand of oxygen in the muscles). Major blood vessels dilate. Blood vessels not directly involved in activity constrict. Short term effects of exercise Muscles Increased blood flow ensures greater supply of oxygen to muscle tissues, ligaments and tendons involved in the activity. Blood vessels in active muscles will dilate in order to accommodate increased blood flow in exercise. Blood temperature will rise producing a more efficient muscle action. Ref. Figure 18 p.123 Short term effects of exercise Sweating Produced as a normal build up to body heat acts as a cooling mechanism. Evaporation of sweat contributes to body cooling. Sweat glands or skin pores helps removed waste products from the body. Long term effects of exercise Effects on general well being A fitter body is accompanied by an improved sense of well being. Improved physical fitness Better, healthier appetite Improved regular sleep patterns Fewer minor ailments or illnesses Better able to fully enjoy normal life Long term effects of exercise Improved sense of well being founded in positive attitude to many aspects of life. More regular lifestyle habits Being less prone to stress and strains Improved self image Improved relationship with others Long Term effects of exercise Long term training programme will have long term effects on the; Heart Circulatory system Breathing Body composition Muscles Rate of recovery Summary Further Reading refer to pgs 122-125, OCR Textbook.