Morningstar Training Presentation for the TS

TriStar MPPT Training Program
Brad Berwald
Sr. Sales Engineer
[email protected]
Training Overview
 TriStar Family Applications
 Product Details
– where is it used?
– ratings, specs and features.
 MPPT Advantages – the benefits of an MPPT controller over
other types.
 Competitive Advantages
– TriStar MPPT’s features that beat
the competition
 Sizing and Setup – how to configure the TS MPPT
 Product Communications
with the TS MPPT
 Questions?
– all the ways you can communicate
TriStar Applications
•With its several operating modes and sizing configurations, the TriStar
family of controllers is perfect in the following applications:
• Scalable Telecommunications systems from 1-15kw
• Residential Off-Grid and Grid-Tie with battery
• RV and Boating (Mobile Market)
• Traffic and Highway Telemetry
• Industrial Automation and control systems (SCADA)
• Larger scale Solar Outdoor Lighting
Following are some of the applications the
TriStar has been used in. (TriStar PWM is shown)
Back-Up System
Five TS-60’s used in parallel to provide charging for this 10kW
communications building.
Norway Weather Station
Dual TriStar System used for Wind and Solar charging in very Northern region.
Portable Power Station
Two TriStars used for 5kw system in military application.
Ratings and Features
• 45A
and 60A Versions
• 150V Maximum Open Circuit Voltage
• MPPT charge control with TrakStar TechnologyTM
Maximizes Energy Harvest
• Very fast sweeping of the entire I-V curve
• Recognition of multiple power points during
shading or mixed PV arrays
• Excellent performance at sunrise and low solar
insolation levels
Robust Thermal Design
• Passively
cooled – no fans required
• Parallel circuit design provides less stress and longer
life for electronic components
• No mechanical relays
• Extensive electronic protections including PV short
circuit protection
• Epoxy encapsulated inductors and conformally coated
printed circuit boards
Electrical Specifications
Peak Efficiency
Nominal System Voltage
Max. Solar Open Circuit
Battery Operating Voltage
Maximum Self-consumption
Transient Surge Protection
12, 24, 36 or 48 volts DC
150 VDC
8-68 VDC
2.3 Watts
4500 Watts/terminal
TriStar MPPT Sizing
With the TriStar MPPT you can size in pure watts since
the controller provides the maximum current available
from the system after conversion. Wattages in excess of
those below will be held to controller current limit.
TS – MPPT-45
TS – MPPT-60
12 Volt
600 Watts
800 Watts
24 Volt
1200 Watts
1600 Watts
48 Volt
2400 Watts
3200 Watts
Electronic Protections
 Solar: Overload, Short Circuit, High Voltage
 Battery: High Voltage
 High Temperature
 Lightning and Transient Surges – all
 Reverse Current at Night
 CE Compliant
 ETL Listed (UL1741)
 FCC Class B Part 15 Compliant
 Complies with (NEC) U.S. National Electric
 RoHS Compliant
 Manufactured in a certified ISO 9001 facility
Charge Controllers: MPPT vs. PWM
PWM Charge Control
MPPT Charge Control
 PV Array and Battery
 Array can be higher
Voltages must match.
 Array is sized in Amps
based in Imp of modules.
 Less expensive
 Simpler series switching
charge control circuit
using PWM pulse charge
nominal voltage than
battery and controller
converters power down.
 Array is sized in watts
 High Frequency charge
Maximum Power Point Tracking
The Technology behind maximum energy harvest.
1. The controller needs to keep the module operating at the Vmp to
ensure rated output in watts of the PV module.
2. Accounts for changes in temperature and irradiance through the day.
3. Ensures grid-tie modules (i.e. 54 and 72 cell) are optimized in voltage
for effective battery charge regardless of their nominal voltage.
Even the largest and most efficient controller can give up crucial power if
not tracking the power point of the module correctly. Speed and logic in
the tracking algorithm yield gains that pure size and efficiency cannot
make on their own.
MPPT Economics
Incremental cost of MPPT
PV Module Cost/Wp
Boost Needed to cover MPPT cost (Wp)
Boost Needed to cover MPPT cost (%):
500 Wp PV array
1kWp PV array
1.5 kWp PV array
103 Watts
MPPT Benefits
“Boost” – 10-30% gain in charging amps out of the same module used on a
PWM controller. The greater the gap between Vmp and battery voltage, the more
the boost in current the battery receives.
-Cold modules increase the gain due to higher Vmp
-low battery voltages increase the gain when needed most
High Voltage Wire Runs – smaller wire can be used and greater distances
achieved using higher voltage PV input due to less voltage drop.
Shading and cloud irradiance effects – Cloud edge effect can cause the
module to exceed its rated wattage for a short time. Shading can cause tricky IV
curve shapes. MPPT can follow both these changes to ensure maximum power
during these conditions.
Low Battery Protection – when the battery is very low, a high voltage difference
between the PV Vmp and the battery voltage causes an even greater power
boost. This can prevent an LVD at a time when the power is most needed.
Maximum Power Point Tracking
IV Curve
Power Graph
MPPT Boost
Since Vmp and battery voltage levels are in constant change, it is difficult to
calculate boost through out a long period of time. To estimate potential benefit of
MPPT over a PWM controller you can use the following calculation:
System Assumptions
12V System
3 PV Modules in system
25C Ambient Temperature
No BOS voltage drops
Perfect controller efficiency
Estimate of charge amps
Between Imp and Isc
130W PV Module
7.39 Imp
17.6 Vmp
21.9 Voc
186W PV Module
6.95 Imp
25.9 Vmp
32.6 Voc
MPPT Boost – Off-Grid Module
130W Sized in Amps
130W Sized in Watts
TriStar PWM
TriStar MPPT
3 Modules in Parallel (390W)
7.8A x 3 modules in parallel
3 Modules in Parallel
130W x 3 = 390W
390W PV
13V battery
= 23.4A into the battery
= 30A into the battery
28% more potential power when used with MPPT
MPPT Boost – Grid-Tie Module
186W Sized in Amps
186W Sized in Watts
TriStar PWM
TriStar MPPT
3 Modules in Parallel (558W)
25.9 Vmp is far greater than 13Vbatt
7.5A x 3 modules in parallel
3 Modules in parallel
186W x 3 = 558W
25.9 Vmp is converted down Vbatt.
558W PV
13V battery
= 22.5A into the battery
=43A into the battery
A PWM controller is really not an option with this type of PV
module. You may lose half your available power!
Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques
MPPT Tracking Algorithms on the market:
Full Sweep - scans entire PV array from 0-150V.
Pros: Sees everything on the IV curve, not easily fooled.
Cons: Slow, sometimes takes an extended time for a full sweep
during which charging is far from the true Vmp.
Dynamic Tracking – stays near Vmp and makes minor rapid
Pros: Faster
Cons: Can get hung up on a local peak and miss the true peak
power point.
TrakStar MPPT Comparison
Full I-V Curve Sweep
TrakStar MPPT Comparison
Dynamic Tracking
Dynamic tracking alone causes the controller to:
-Only see what is happening locally at the
presumed power point.
-Not detect what true Voc is.
-Be fooled by shading effects, mixed module
types or flat IV curves often seen on thin film
-Take time to re-track during periods of fast
changing irradiance and temperature levels.
(cool winds on the panel surface or fast moving
Dynamic Tracking by itself leaves you in the dark as to
where the best Vmp point is.
By not venturing further up the curve, you may be
missing a big opportunity for more power.
Maximum Power Point Tracking
Morningstar TrakStar Technology
- Full array sweeps from 0-150V in ¼ second! Other controllers can
take up to 30 seconds during which light levels could change.
- The TS-MPPT offers the ability to sweep often to make sure to not
miss any fast changing max power points.
- Dual chipset provides specialized control
-DSP – high speed MPPT, charge control, protections and data logging
-Secondary Processor – Ethernet and communications
TriStar MPPT – minimal power draw designed
for remote power systems.
Controller Self Consumption in Watts
(Ethernet Enabled)
Day - 48V
Day - 24V
Day - 12V
Night - 48V
Night - 24V
Night - 12V
TriStar MPPT - Industry Leading Efficiency
TriStar MPPT - Industry Leading Efficiency
Outback FM60 Efficiency Curve
TriStar MPPT - Industry Leading Efficiency
Price Comparison (US Retail Prices in $)
M Star
TriStar MPPT-45
TriStar MPPT-60
TriStar MPPT-45 with RTS
TriStar MPPT-60 with RTS
TriStar MPPT-45 with meter
TriStar MPPT-60 with meter
TriStar MPPT-45 with RTS and meter
TriStar MPPT-60 with RTS and meter
Note: You can view TS MPPT-60 from a web browser and often times will not need a
String Sizing Calculator
Morningstar’s string
calculator allows you size
compatible PV strings for
all of Morningstar’s
charge controllers. (both
You can select from a
pre-populated module
database or enter your
own module ratings.
The calculator also
accounts for ambient
temperature and battery
voltages which affect
compensation and MPPT
charge levels.
TriStar Charge Settings
Battery voltage detection is automatic for 12, 24 and 48V systems or can be
fixed if desired.
The PV Array requires nothing to be configured. Simply connect the array
and any voltage from Vbatt up to Voc will be detected and charging will begin
automatically and at the most efficient level possible.
DIP Switch Settings
Battery Type is the only major decision that has to be made.
We use simple DIP switch combinations to give you a complete battery
charging profile with all the stages, timers and voltages pre-configured for
a given battery type. Usually jumping to just one or two presets will
become second nature for most system installs.
You really only need look at switches 4,5 and 6 to choose the battery type.
You can also choose to enable auto-equalization or not with switch 7.
DIP Switch Settings
If desired, more sophisticated settings can be programmed and an open
preset is available for the user or installer to create their own custom setting
using our free PC software, MS View.
This setting allows editing of very fine details, even allowing you to set
maximum charge ceilings, extended absorption or equalization cycles.
TriStar MPPT Communications
•Networked Controllers Working Together
•Controllers interacting with other site hardware
•Data logging of site data for later retrieval
•Remote monitoring and control
TriStar and TriStar MPPT with HUB
The TriStar MPPT can be paralleled with
other TriStars or TriStar MPPT
controllers when used with the
Morningstar HUB.
This shares the utility and cost of a
single meter with multiple units.
It accumulates data on the meter for the
sum of the system but still lets you view
individual TS unit data (unit 1,2,3 etc.)
Stacking multiple HUBs allows support
for up to 15 total meterbus devices
including controllers, meters and our
relay driver which is used for alarm
contact and genstart functionality.
TriStar and TriStar MPPT with HUB
TriStar and TriStar MPPT with HUB
A single TS-M2 will scan the meter
bus and detect all connected TriStars
and their mode of operation (charge
or load)
You get system power totals as well
as individual controller detail for
specific information and
HUB and Meter Economics
5 x TS MPPT-60 + RTS
5 x TS-M2 Meter Display
TS MPPT Internal Data Logging
Internal daily logged values stored in controller memory
show a variety of power information, voltage and current
thresholds in the system. It also logs daily events such as
faults or maintenance cycles.
Max Battery Voltage
Min Battery Voltage
Max Array Voltage
Amp Hours
Watt Hours
Daily Events
-Equalize/Float Stages Triggered
Absorption Stage Time (mins)
Equalization Stage Time (mins)
Float Stage Time (mins)
TS MPPT Remote Data Logging with TS Meter 2
The TriStars data logging information can be easily viewed in the
following ways:
1. Viewed locally using any connected TS-M2 meter display (60 days)
TS MPPT Remote Data Logging with MS View
2. Downloaded locally using the serial RS-232/485 connection or
remotely using the Ethernet TCP/IP connection (200 day file)
This log file can be viewed in MS View so you can see and graph up to
the previous 200 days of daily logged values.
TS MPPT Remote Data Logging with MS View
3. A continuous internet connection allows for a logging file to record data over
a very long period of time at an interval set by the user. This log file is written to a CSV
format and can be used for very detailed logging of key data occurring at intervals of every
day or every 5 seconds if desired.
This log file can be viewed in MS View graphically so you can also see comparative
graphs to analyze the information or it could analyzed graphically using a spreadsheet
program like MS Excel.
TS MPPT Remote Data Logging with MS View
4. The TS MPPT web interface allows you to also view up to 200 days
of the internal data logging information through a simple HTML table interface.
No software is needed and the web page can be viewed with any full web
browser application on any computing platform. Just another simple way the TS
MPPT allows you to get your system data.
TriStar – Notification
Often a remote data connection is not something that can be continually
monitored due to the lack of bandwidth, or the fact that there are two
many sites to effective keep track of in real time. The TS MPPT with
Ethernet offers two solutions to better manage large quantities of sites.
SNMP – Simple Network Management Protocol
SNMP is a network standard that allows networked equipment to send out
a proactive alert in the event of a problem with the system. A listening
server will detect these alerts and allow for identification to pursue further
information about the problem.
Email Alerts – Programmable Proactive Alerts
Using comparative logic, the user can setup conditions that the TS MPPT
will watch for and when detected, can send an email with details of the
alert and on which unit it happened.
TriStar – Notification Setup
TriStar Notifications
Email and SNMP Alerts –Proactive Alerts
Using comparative logic, the user can setup conditions that the TS MPPT
will watch for and when detected, can send an email or SNMP trap with
details of the alert and on which unit it happened.
TriStar – MODBUS Open Protocol
All of Morningstar’s data enabled controllers use an open industrial data
protocol known as MODBUS. By choosing this type of protocol, we allow
3rd party software and hardware to easily communicate with our
controllers. We do not limit the customer to our proprietary hardware to
use our system information.
MODBUS is continuing to be chosen as the standard of choice for remote
telemetry, power monitoring and inter-device communication. We believe
MODBUS support will allow our products to grow easily with the industry’s
rapid pace of energy technology development.
TriStar – Data Summary
There are many different options for communicating with the TriStar
MPPT. Depending on the level of detail needed, the timeliness of the
need for that data and the communications resources available, a variety
of choices can be used to best meet the needs of the system and user.
Data Type
Time Period
Proactive or On Demand
MS View PC Software
Instant and historical
On Demand
Instant and historical
On Demand
TS-M2 Meter
Instant and historical
On Demand
TriStar MPPT
The TriStar MPPT delivers with Morningstar’s consistent
offering of quality, reliability and unique features.
It offers the latest Solar MPPT charge control, industry
leading efficiency and temperature performance as well
as sophisticated new Ethernet functionality at a
compelling price.
It’s scalability and ease of use should make it another
Morningstar product you can count on to complement
your off-grid product portfolio.
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