Urban Development Plan

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Alireza Gharagozlou
Mahsa Mirhoseiny
Mojgan Hejrani Diarjan
Sofia, 2010
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Recognizing The Existing Potentials of Iran in
Identification of Natural Resources with a Land
Use Planning Approach,
 Urban Development Model Using
Environmental Modeling and GIS/RS
 Alireza Gharagozlou,
 National Cartographic Center of Iran
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Role of GIS and Remote Sensing in Land Use
Planning
and
Environmental
Impact
Assessment
Conceptual Model of GIS/RS and EIA and
Land Use Planning
Presenting Mathematical Model for Urban
Development Plans for Tehran by using
Environmental Modeling and GIS/RS
Methods of
Resource
Identification
Data Gathering
and Monitoring
by Remote
Sensing and
Analysis by GIS
What is Proper?
1. Statistics,
Sampling
2. Arial
Photography
3.Remote Sensing
4.GIS
A. Resources
Identification
Sustainable
Natural
Resources of the
Region Related to
the Objective
Application of
GIS and Remote
Sensing
B. Analysis and
Organizing the
Resources
Production of
Necessary Maps
for Assessment
by Using GIS
Application of
GIS in
Assessment
C. Assessment of
Ecological and
Economic
Potentials
Comparing the
Present Status
with the Models
Determination of
Potentials for
Development
D. Strategic Planning
National and Regional
Levels
Spatial Analysis by
Using GIS and
Considering the
Options
E. Determination of the
Type of Application
Decision Making
Environmental Impact
Assessment
F. Compilation of the
Project
Take Actions
GIS and Remote
Sensing for Monitoring
G. Implementation
Users and
Organizations
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Y1 (1984) = S(1,2,3) + H(1,2,3,4) + A(1,3,4,5) + QA(2,3,4,5) + MA(3,4) +
WS(1,2,3,4,5) + SO(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9) + SW(1,2,3,4) + NI(2,3,4,5)
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Y2 (1994) = S(1,2,3,4,5) + H(1,2,3,4,5,6,) + A(1,2,3,4,5) + HW(1,2) +
SO(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11) + WS(1,2,3,4,5,6) + QA(1,2,3,4,5) + NI(1) +
MA(2,3,4) + HP(1,2,3,4)
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Y3 (1998) = S(1,2,3,4,5) + H(1,2,3,4,5,6) + A(1,2,3,4,5) + WS(1,2,3,4,5) +
SO(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11) if S(5,6) + NI(2,3,4,5) + QA(2,3,4,5)
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Y4 (2001) = SW(3,4) + HP(3,4) + QA(2,3,4,5) + S(1,2,3,4) + H(1,2,3) +
WS(1,2,3,4,5)
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S is slope, H is height or altitude
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A is aspect, QA is fault line
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MA is distance from ravine areas
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WS is wind speed, SO is soil components
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SW is distance from subterranean water resources
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NI is distance from industrial sites
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HW is green buffer around highways, HP is historical landmark
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"Slope" (S) includes six classes: 0 to 2% (class 1), 2 to 5% (class 2), 5 to 8% (class 3),
8 to 12% (class 4), 12 to 15% (class 5), and more than 15% (class 6).
"Height" (H) includes six altitude classes: less than 1000 meters (class 1), 1000-1200
meters (class 2), 1200-1400 meters (class 3), 1400-1600 meters (class 4), 1600-1800
meters (class 5), and more than 1800 meters (class 6).
"Aspect" (A) refers to geographical direction and includes five classes (northern,
southern, eastern, western, or no direction).
"Distance from ravine areas" (MA) includes four classes: less than 50 meters (class
1), 50-300 meters (class 2), 300-500 meters (class 3), and more than 500 meters (class
4).
"Subterranean water resources" (SW) divides resources into four classes, based on
distance to the water resource: less than 100 meters (class 1), 100-500 meters (class
2), 500-1000 meters (class 3), and more than one kilometer (class 4).
"Distance from industrial sites" (NI) includes three classes: less than 5 kilometers
(class 1), 5-10 kilometers (class 2), and 10-20 kilometers (class 3).
"Green buffer around highways" (HW) should be considered in all environmental
assessments and development plans. These buffers should be planted with
evergreen trees appropriate to the region. Green buffer areas are divided into
three classes: less than 10 meters (class 1), 10-100 meters (class 2), and more than
100 meters (class 3).
"Historical landmark" (HP) divides historical places into four classes, based on
how far away they are located: less than 5 kilometers (class 1), 5-10 kilometers
(class 2), 10-20 kilometers (class 3), and more than 20 kilometers (class 4).
Other categories, such as soil components (SO) and wind speed (WS), also include
multiple classes.
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Urban Development Plan
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
Determining land use changes by using Arial
photos and satellite images to environmental
assessment and evaluation of development
plans
Through the comparison of urban applications
of territories, aerial photos (1955 &1992 & 2005)
and satellite images, TM (1992), ETM+ (2008),
analysis of city standards regarding their
national dimensions by using GIS, most of the
problems of the area were known

Boundaries of urban applications in Tehran's
District 9, including schools, healthcare centers
(hospitals and clinics), factories and industrial
and workshop centers based on standards were
determined and set by using GIS analysis and
in keeping with the existing related standards
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Green Areas in 2002
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Aerial photos taken from the District in 1955 shows
that the area of open or non-constructed lands has been
156661.30 square meters whereas aerial photos and
satellite images taken from the same District in 2002,
shows an equivalent of 2682.10 square meters
It can be concluded then that the scales of construction
works have increased by 58 times during the 47 year
period of time
A comparison of green area in the two intervals of 1955
and 2002 helps prove that greeneries had occupied an
area of 23906.90 square meters in 1955 whereas the
figure in 2002 has decrease to 1144.30 square meters,
showing a decrease 21 times the original size in the
areas of green space during the study period time
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The analysis of the satellite images and Arial photos
taken in the two time intervals well indicates that the
District has quickly transformed into a compact and
busy and bustling area from an originally calm area
A major issue to note however is that original,
traditional roads, streets and alleyways have
remained intact unlike residential areas which have
taken a progressive trend
The phenomenon might lead to a widening of
vehicular traffic in the area and subsequently reasons
sound and air pollutions as major consequences
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GIS as Visualization and Processing and
Databases Systems
GIS help us to comparison the location and size
of urban applications with standards that
present in EIA report
All analyses stated and shown have been
conducted by assistance of GIS and in keeping
with standards
Distance Standards for spatial Analysis
Urban Applications
factory
Industrial zone
Residential zone
km<500m
1 km<
1 km>
1 km<
1 km<
2 km>
>500 m
> 1 km
500 m>
>500 m
> 1 km
1200 m>
>500 m
> 1 km
2000 m>
Healthcare center
Hospital
Elementary school
Secondary school
High school
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Analysis shows clinics should have been situated at a
distance of one kilometer from industrial centers,
therefore:
Shamshiri and Sayyed al-Shohada clinics have been
situated within an area where Vahdat industrial
complex
Pars Plastic Company and Rima Prefabricated Houses
industrial complex have already been situated within
their precincts
Moreover, many more factories have emerged in the
vicinity of Shamshiri and Sayyed al-Shohada clinics
including Bahar Lux, Miral glass factory, a tanker
making factory, Goushtiran meat factory, etc.
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Residential areas should not be situated at a distance of more than
one kilometer from the nearest healthcare centers:
Three townships which accommodate Mehrabad, Javidabad and
Havapeymayi's apartment complexes are situated well away from
the precincts of clinics while other scattered residential areas too
are situated at a farther than standards distance from the nearest
healthcare centers
Shahid Fayyazbakhsh Hospital has been constructed within
industrial precincts. The existence of Zamzam soft drink factory
within the precincts of the three hospitals of Babak, Meymanat
and Shahriyar maternity clinic as well as the existence of many
other factories within the precincts of Shariat Razavi and Shahid
Fayyazbakhsh hospitals indicate an inattention to authorized
boundaries of hospitals and their authorized distance to nearest
factories
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