Malaysian Armed Forces (KOMLEK)

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DEFENCE COMMUNICATION THROUGH
SATELLITES
By
Lt Col Khairul Kamal Subari RMAF
Defence Communications & Electronic Division
MAF HQ
1
SCOPE
 Introduction to Satellite
 Why Satellite?
 VSAT in General
 Spectrum Allocation & Characteristics
 VSAT Network Topology
 C Band vs Ku Band
 Defence Operation Using Satellite
Communication
 Conclusion
2
INTRODUCTION TO SATELLITE
Satellites
–
–
Specialize transceiver
Place in orbit around earth
Satellites uses
–
–
–
–
–
Communications
Weather
Global Positioning systems
Scientific studies of our planet,
the atmosphere and the
universe
Spy
3
INTRODUCTION TO SATELLITE
continues…..
Satellite Orbits
GEO
Geostationary Earth Orbit 35,400 Km
MEO
Medium Earth Orbit
20,000 – 30,000 Km
LEO
Low Earth Orbit
200 – 1400 Km
4
SATELLITE COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT
Satellite
Up Link
Down Link
6 GHz
4 GHz
Transmitting
Earth Station
(Outdoor Unit)
Indoor
Unit
Receiving
Earth Station
(Outdoor Unit)
Indoor
Unit
Basic Satellite Communication :
- Line of sight microwave system with a single repeater (transponder) located at space
- Space segment or satellite (e.g. Intelsat, Inmarsat, Measat)
- Ground segment or earth station which includes:
- Antenna
- Outdoor Unit (ODU) (e.g. Feedhorn, Low Noise Amplifier, Solid State Power Amplifier)
- Inter Facility Link (IFL) - waveguide or coaxial cable
- Indoor Unit (IDU) (e.g. Up/Down Converter, Satellite Modem)
5
I N T E L S A T
60 E
62 E
APSTAR 2R
64 E
MEA SAT-1/ 3
76.5 E
91.5 E
ASIA SAT
PALAPA
JCSat
100.5 E
113 E 118 E
128 E
I N T E L S A T
PanAmSAT
169 E
LABUAN
174 E 177 E 180 E 183 E
KINARUT
SABAH
BRUNEI
KUANTAN
WANGSA MAJU
CYBERJAYA
SARAWAK
MELAKA
SEMATAN
SINGAPORE
Legend:
Existing E/S
E a rth S ta tio n
S e rv ic e s
K uantan
P S TN , B ro a d c a s t , V S A T
M e la k a
P S TN , B ro a d c a s t
Labuan
P S TN , B ro a d c a s t , V S A T, Int e rn e t
W a n g s a M a ju
B ro a d c a s t , V S A T
S em atan
B ro a d c a s t
K in a ru t
B ro a d c a s t
C y b e rja y a
V S A T, Int e rn e t , M u lt im e d ia
6
WHY SATELLITE?
Satellite comms provide the following:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Ubiquitous availability.
Terrestrial-free network.
Reliability.
Multi-cast content distribution.
Security & privacy.
Superior economics.
Rapid deployment & installation.
Flexibility & expandability.
7
VSAT in General
VSAT
:
Very Small Aperture Terminal
Antenna Diameter
:
0.6m ~ 4.5m
Traffic Capacity
:
9.6kbps ~ 2Mbps
Frequency Bands
:
C-band (4 - 6 GHz) or Ku-band (12 - 14 GHz).
Use of Satellite
:
Geo-stationary satellite (36,000km above equator)
Network Configuration :
i. Point - to - point
ii. Point - to - multipoint
- STAR network
- MESH network
Equipment List
:
i. Antenna (1.8m / 2.4m / 3.8m)
ii. Outdoor Unit (Feedhorne, LNA, SSPA)
iii. Indoor Unit (Chasis, Satellite Modem)
Applications
:
Voice, Data, Internet, Fax and Video
8
SPECTRUM ALLOCATION &
CHARACTERISTICS
VSAT Frequency Spectrum Allocation
This table acts as a guide only.
Band
Frequency GHz
Area Foot-print
Delivered Power
Rainfall effect
Band C
3 to 7
Large
Low
Minimum
Band Ku
10 to 18
Medium
Medium
Moderate
Band Ka
18 to 31
Small
High
Severe
9
VSAT Network Topology
VSAT Point-to-Point
VSAT Star Network
VSAT Mesh Network
10
VSAT STAR NETWORK
Satellite
CUSTOMER
HEADQUARTERS
STAR
Cyberjaya E/S
REMOTE
OFFICE
1.8m / 2.4m
Antenna
6.1m
Antenna
1.8m / 2.4m
Antenna
TERMINAL
CONTROLLER
Applications
within each
remote office
Monitoring,
controlling,
troubleshooting,
software configuration
CENTRAL HUB
WITH NETWORK
MANAGEMENT
N
T
U
NTU
LEASED
LINE
Leased Circuit
Network
REMOTE
OFFICE
TMNet
Router
TMNet
(Internet Cloud)
11
VSAT POINT-TO-POINT NETWORK
POINT TO POINT
Satellite
64kbps - 2Mbps
64kbps - 2Mbps
REMOTE
OFFICE #1
2.4/3.8m Antenna
TERMINAL
CONTROLLER
2.4/3.8m Antenna
REMOTE
OFFICE
VIDEO
RECEIVER
REMOTE
OFFICE #2
PABX
Applications
within each
remote office
12
VSAT MESH NETWORK
Satellite
MESH
REMOTE
OFFICE
2.4m Antenna
2.4m Ant
2.4m Ant
3.8m Ant
TERMINAL
CONTROLLER
Applications
within each
remote office
REMOTE
OFFICE
REMOTE
OFFICE
VIDEO
RECEIVER
PABX
NETWORK
CONTROL
SYSTEM
NETWORK CONTROL SYSTEM
(KUANTAN)
•Monitoring, controlling, troubleshooting,
software configuration
13
Service Coverage on MEASAT-1
Types of Services offered
on Measat-1
–
–
–
–
VSAT
IDR Junction
TV Uplinking
Bandwidth of up to 2Mbps
Bridging Divides via Digital Satellite Technology from Telekom Malaysia
14
Service Coverage on JCSat-3
Coverage area – Asia (including India & Russia), Hawaii, Australia & New Zealand
15
C BAND VS KU BAND
PROS
CONS
C BAND
Minimum effect from weather
(rainfall)
Need larger antenna for bigger
bandwidth
KU BAND
Smaller antenna
Moderately affected by weather
16
DEFENCE OPERATIONS USING SATELLITE
COMMUNICATION
FOR QUICK DEPLOYMENT
–
KU BAND A BETTER CHOICE


SMALLER SIZE
BIGGER BANDWIDTH
FOR CONTINUOS UNINTERUPTIBLE COMMS
–
C BAND PREFERABLE


NOT AFFECTED BY WEATHER
BUT REQUIRE BIGGER ANTENNA
17
CONCLUSION
Effective Defence Operations Using Satellite Comms
–
–
Using Both Band
Ku Band as Primary


–
Smaller size C Band Antenna

–
–
–
Bigger Bandwidth
Capable for multimedia transmission
Backup to Ku Band on adverse weather
Step-up with Ku Band moving ahead
C Band remain with transmission limited to voice & data
Networked C Band & Ku Band can meet the bandwidth
demand of a deployed HQ
18
Thank you
19
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