The American Revolution - Manthei`sHomeroom

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The American Revolution
The Revolutionary War
Definitions
• Revolutionary War – a war between Britain and the
US in which the US wanted their independence from
Britain
• Mercenaries – professional soldiers who would fight
for anyone who would pay them
• Strategy – an overall plan to do something or carry
out something
• Ally – when nations join together for a common
effort (such as winning a war)
• Guerrillas – soldiers who are not apart of a regular
army, who operate on their own
War Has Begun!
• In 1775, recruiters were looking for volunteers to
go to New York and fight.
• The British were rumored to have landed 15,000
troops
• Joseph Martin, at the age of 16, traded his plow
for a musket and headed to New York, as it was
his dream to be a soldier
• The US army was ill prepared, sick, and ill
equipped to fight.
British Army
• The British were well trained, well equipped, and
well supported by the Royal Navy
• The British had actually landed 25,000 troops
into New York, on more than 400 ships
• This was the biggest army and fleet they had
ever sent overseas
• They had every advantage to win this war, but
would they?
American Weaknesses
• Few Americans were trained for battle
• They did not stay long in the army, so
there were constantly new soldiers to
train
• Numbers were low
• Weapon shortages
• Food shortages
• Uniform shortages
American Strengths
• Immense patriotism, especially Joseph
Martin, and others who gave their lives to
defend liberty
• Had the aid of the French, who also
disliked the British (an ally)
• George Washington – who kept the army
together, gave the soldiers courage and
confidence and inspired them to continue
British Strengths
• Great numbers in
their army (over
50,000 troops)
• King George hired
over 30,000
mercenaries
• Well trained and
well supplied
• Much more artillery
experience
• Used Hessian
mercenaries from
Germany
• Excelled in large,
ground fought battles
British Weaknesses
• Long distance
between Britain
and America
• British taxpayers were
getting angry footing
the bill for war
• Sending supplies
and troops across
the ocean was
costly and slow
• Poor leadership by
Lord George Germain
• The British people
could not see the
vitality in defeating
America
• Germain kept
changing plans and
generals looking for
the key to success
Assignment Day 1
• Write a compare and contrast essay on the
strengths and weaknesses of both the Americans
and British during the war.
Britain Invades!
• Upon British return to the colonies, Gen.
William Howe lead troops into New York City.
• From there, Germain’s plan was to head north
and capture Massachusetts.
• As George Washington hurried his troops to
New York to block the British invasion, he heard
the news that congress had declared the colonies
“free and independent”
• He then read the declaration to his troops aloud
African Americans
• Confusion was raised by African Americans and
their role in the Revolution
• Did Jefferson really mean “all people” were free?
• Many blacks were joining the cause, and fighting
with militiamen early on.
• African Americans, however, were banned from
fighting in the war, as Washington was worried
it would become a haven for runaway slaves
African Americans (Con’t)
• The British were promising freedom to slaves
who helped fight for the king.
• Thousands of slaves took the call and became
Loyalists to fight for the king.
• A shortage of volunteers forced Washington to
change his mind, and in 1779 15% of soldiers
were black.
• Many also fought for the Continental Navy
• While fighting alongside, many whites had taken
the steps to end slavery in many colonies
Defeat in Brooklyn, New York
• American & Britain met in Brooklyn on Aug 27,
1776
• It was a huge defeat for the inexperienced
American army
• The British lost 377, while the Americans lost
1,407
• Howe ordered the British to stop their attacks,
waiting for Washington to surrender
• Washington refused to retreat, but yet he knew to
save his army he would have to.
Fading Hopes
• Americans began to face many defeats after NY
• For soldiers, there was little food, which lead to
weakness and exhaustion
• The weather was cold, wet, and icy which just added
to the soldiers misery
• Many soldiers enlistment time was nearly up, so
many were preparing to leave and head home
• Word spread that anyone who was in the
Continental Army had to be crazy to stay!
• Washington only had a few thousand troops left by
the time they reached Pennsylvania.
• They needed more men or “the game was over”.
Assignment Day 2
In a 2 pg essay, explain the war thus far, including
the following facts and people:
Lord George Germain
General William Howe
African Americans
Defeat in NY
Washington
Struggles of the Continental
Pep Talks Toward Victory
• After their numerous defeats, Washington knew
he needed to motivate his troops
• He read from Thomas Paine’s new pamphlet,
The Crisis:
“These
are the times that try men’s souls. The summer
soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis,
shrink from the service of their country; but he that
stands NOW, deserves the love and thanks of man and
woman.”
Washington’s Plan for Victory!
• Washington devised a sneak attack
• British troops in Trenton, NJ were camped for
the winter months
• On Dec 25, 1776 troops crossed the ice-topped
Delaware River to surprise British troops who
were sleeping off their Christmas dinners
• Washington’s troops captured 868 prisoners
without losing a single man
• A week later, they captured 300 troops in
Princeton, NJ
Turning of the Tide
• When the war started, both sides had a plan
for winning
• The strategy was to defeat the enemy in
battle
• After nearly being defeated, Washington
decided that he would avoid big battles with
his lack of supplies and numbers, and focus
on defensive attacks to tired the British out.
Brains vs. Braun
New British Strategy
• Germain revised the British plan as well
• His plan was to take control of New York’s
Hudson River Valley
• By taking control of the waterway, the
Continental Army would collapse from lack of
supplies and men
• General John Burgoyne left Canada with 8,000
soldiers to head to New York and meet up with
General Howe
Forward March!
Difficult Route
• The route the British were taking through
Canada turned out to be 20 miles of tangled
wilderness and difficult terrain
• The army consisted of 600 wagons of supplies
and such, which also had to cross through that
terrain
• The soldiers were exhausted from building
bridges, chopping trees, and building roads
through swamps
Gen. Howe Has His Own Plans
• Instead of heading to NY as planned, Howe
decided to head to Philadelphia, which was the
“rebels” capital
• He hoped he could lure the Americans into
another battle defending their capital
• Washington played games with Howe, attacking
here and there and then disappearing into the
countryside. He would not fight for Philadelphia.
Burgoyne’s Army Left Alone
• After Howe decided to change plans, the other
half of the British troops were left alone
• By the time they reached the Hudson River, they
were outnumbered by American militia
• On October, 17, 1777, Burgoyne accepted defeat
• This sparked a turning point for Americans
Allies to the Rescue!
• After this victory, France entered the war as an
ally to the US and supplied food, weapons,
money, and troops.
• Spain also joined the war against Britian.
• The American cause was looking hopeful!
Assignment Day 3
Choose from one of the following:
1. Write a letter from the point-of-view of
General Howe after being taken captive in
Trenton, NJ to British officials
*or*
2. Write a letter from Burgoyne’s point-of-view to
British officials after their difficult journey *or*
3. Write a letter from Washington’s point-of-view
to congress once France and Spain joined the
war efforts
Valley Forge
• After the Saratoga victory, Congress declared a
day of Thanksgiving
• Washington and his men were on their way to
Valley Forge, PA to make camp for the winter
• The men were naked and starved
• Baron Friedrich von Steuben was put in charge
of training the troops and discipline
• Marquis de Layfayette used his own money to
buy the troops food and clothes, which raised the
troops morale and spirits
Battle of Monmouth
• Sir Henry Clinton replaced General Howe as
British Commander
• He retreated the troops from Philly and returned
to New York City
• On June 28, 1778, Washington’s army caught up
with Clinton’s and a battle took place in
Monmouth, NJ
• The Americans won as the British slipped across
the Hudson River to safety in New York City
North and South
• The war in the North was over, after the British
failed to conquer any northern state
• The new plan was to move the war to the South
• Clinton launched an attack on Savannah, GA,
and then headed to North and South Carolina
• Clinton returned to NYC, leaving General
Cornwallis in charge of the South
• Guerillas stopped British advancement through
the Carolinas and kept the American cause alive
Greene vs. Cornwallis
Greene lead
Conrnwallis’s
troops on a
wild goose
chase through
the southern
backcountry
Cornwallis
wrote that he
was tired of
marching
around the
country and
took his army
and left
Yorktown
France joined
Washington’s army
In New York
Washington set a trap
for Cornwallis
They surrounded
Cornwallis with more
than 16,000 troops and
controlled the waterways
The trap was
sprung on Oct 6,
1781
Joseph Martin
watched with
pride as the
American flag was
raised as they
fired on Yorktown
Cornwallis Surrenders
• When no British ships
arrived to help, Cornwallis
agreed to surrender
• 8,000 British troops were
in a line and walked slowly
out of Yorktown in
surrender
• Cornwallis did not attend,
as he couldn’t bare to
publically surrender in
front of a crowd
Peace Treaty
• In 1783, representatives from both Britain and
US signed a peace treaty in Paris
• In it, it stated that:
1.) Britain will recognize the US
as an independent nation
2.) Britain gave up its land from
Canada to Florida
3.) The US will return anything taken
from the Loyalist during the war
The Cost of War
•
•
•
•
6,200 American lives lost in combat
10,000 American lives lost to diseases
8,500 Americans lost as British prisoners
More Americans died in the Revolutionary War
than in any other war (other than the Civil War,
in which we fought each other)
Day 4 Assignment
•Complete study guide for
Chapter 7
•Test Tomorrow!
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