European Exploration & Conquest 1450-1650 Chapter 15 Key Concepts From ancient to medieval times, there was a widespread and thriving network of global trade among East Asia, Southeast Asia, the Mediterranean, the Middle East and Africa. This network was transformed by the intrusion of new groups of Europeans. The Portuguese and the Dutch competed first with Muslim merchants and then with each other in Asia. They joined the British and French in the exploration and colonization of the Americas. Key Concepts Europeans had a variety of motives as well as certain technological advantages that prompted the expansion of their trade in Asia and their exploration of the New World. “Gold, God and Glory” were not only motivators of exploration, but also led Europeans to colonize in ways that fostered economic development and Christianization. Key Concepts Among the consequences of the encounter of the Old World with the New was: a rapid and thorough decimation of the native population, the transformation of their economic and religious lives, an enormous expansion of the already existing African slave trade. The Columbian exchange people, crops and animals led to radical changes in agriculture and diets, as well as in values and technology gold and silver infused the European economy, inflation benefited the middle classes while hurting the poor and those on fixed incomes. The increasing wealth of the middle class was an important change in the social structure. Intellectual life saw the introduction of new ideas like skepticism and cultural relativism as well as new forms of racism. AP Tip For those of you interested in world history, the first section of this chapter is very rich with a detailed exploration of centers of wealth and trade around the globe. Although most of this material would not appear on an AP European history exam, it is important to understand it for background and the long-term legacy of colonialism. Pay particular attention to those sections that deal with Europe. Setting the Stage for the New Age I. The Commercial Revolution (c. 1500-1700) A. Causes 1. Roots in the Middle Ages (e.g. Hanseatic League) 2. Population growth: 70 million in 1500; 90 million in 1600; thus, more consumers existed 3. “Price revolution”: (long slow upward trend in prices) a. Increased food prices, increased volume of money, and the influx of gold & silver b. Increased prices meant increase in supply of goods 4. States and emerging empires sought to increase their economic power 5. Rise in capitalism (laissez-faire): entrepreneurs invested money in their own businesses or other business ventures. The middle class (bourgeoisie) led the way. The Rise of Capitalism Banking The Fuggers in Germany and the Medicis in Italy were among the leading bankers in Europe. Funded countless economic activities Antwerp in Flanders became the banking and commercial center of Europe in the 16th century. The Hanseatic League evolved from within the German states in the Middle Ages that eventually controlled trade in much of northern Europe well into the 16th century. The League was a mercantile association of numerous cities and towns. Chartered companies: state provided monopolies in certain areas (e.g. British East India Co. and the Dutch East India Co.) These chartered companies became, in effect, a state within a state with large fleets of ships and military power. Joint-stock companies: investors pooled resources for a common purpose (forerunner of the modern corporation). One of the early prime examples of capitalism. Stock markets emerged: e.g., the bourse in Antwerp Investors financed a company by purchasing shares of stock; as the value of the company grew so did the value of the stock, and thus the investors’ profit. The Transititon Slow transition from a European society that was almost completely rural and isolated, to a society that was more developed with the emergence of towns. Many serfs, mostly in Western Europe, improved their social position as a result. Wealth could be taxed The age of exploration developed as competing nations sought to create new empires overseas Rise of nation states (“New Monarchs”) resulted in competition for empires and trade Portugal and Spain sought to break the Italian monopoly on trade with Asia. World Trade Before the Age of Exploration Global economic network Silk Road – China Silk & porcelains Indian Ocean – Roman Empire Indian jewels; peppers, cloves, textiles, African slaves, gold, ivory Malacca – Malaysia connected Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean Multinational/Multicultural Euro contribution minimal until mid 1500s China, India, Ottoman Turkey, Safavid Persia and Egypt held dominant roles World Trade Before the Age of Exploration Venice & Genoa During the Medieval period Venice became very wealthy/powerful Excellent navy Dominated the Mediterranean and Asian trade Slaves Luxury goods silks Spices Played important role in exploration of the New World Management of commercial enterprises – Sugar Plantations Decline of dominance Ottomans overtook trade markets Portuguese & Dutch challenges on the other side Atlantic rather than the Mediterranean routes Causes of European Exploration Mid-15thC Recuperation Black Death Population growth Gold Demand for spices & luxury goods More gold/silver sources to pay for goods New routes – bypass Ottoman held Istanbul Direct access to Asia Christian Fervor Victory over last Muslim kingdom in Spain 1492 Convert non-Christians – Asia & Americas Glory Conquest/adventure Renaissance curiosity Thirst for knowledge Natural history Geography cosmology Impact of the Renaissance “God, glory and gold” were the primary motives Christian Crusaders in the 11th & 14th centuries created European interest in Asia and the Middle East Rise of nation states (“New Monarchs”) resulted in competition for empires and trade Portugal and Spain sought to break the Italian monopoly on trade with Asia. Impact of Renaissance: search for knowledge Revival of Platonic studies, especially mathematics Awareness of living “at dawn of a new age” Invention of the printed book: resulted in the spread of accurate texts and maps Causes of European Exploration Technology Advances borrowed from the East Caravel – replaced the galley ship Navigational tools Astrolabe Magnetic compass Military weapons Cannons – made exploration & conquest possible Ptolemy’s Geography Inaccurate Encouraged the idea that sailing west from Eur. to Asia was possible Technology Technological advances facilitated sea travel Advances in astronomy helped in charting locations at sea Instruments Magnetic compass (ca. 1300): pointed to the magnetic north making it easier to determine direction. A number of instruments were used to determine latitude by measuring the altitude of celestial bodies. Quadrant (ca. 1450): used to determine latitude by measuring the altitude of celestial bodies Mariner’s astrolabe (ca. 1480): used to determine latitude by measuring the altitude of celestial bodies Cross staff (ca. 1550): used to find the latitude by measuring the altitude of the Pole Star above the horizon Ships Portuguese caravel (ca. 1450) Lighter, faster ships than the Spanish Galleons and much better suited for exploration along the African Coast Could sail into the wind Lateen sail and rope riggings Enabled sails to be quickly and efficiently maneuvered to take advantage of wind power Axial rudder (side rudder) Provided for improved change of direction Gunpowder and cannons Provided protection against hostile ships and facilitated the domination of indigenous peoples in lands explored Empires Portugal Prince Henry - The Navigator Early voyages of the west coast of Africa Conquered the Arab city of Ceuta – Morocco Initiated Eur. exploration & colonization Madeira Azores Mauritania – NW Africa Cape of Good Hope Bartholomew Diaz 1487 Vasco da Gama 1497 Continued on to Calicut – India Returned laden with spices & textiles Trading Posts estab. India Violent conflicts with rulers Alfonso de Albuquerque defeated Malacca, Goa, and other trading centers – laid foundation of Portuguese empire in Asia Brazil Pedro Alvares Cabral Sighted Brazil - 1500 Rich mineral resources & lucrative sugar plantations 2 million African slaves Most important Portuguese colony Portuguese in India Portuguese in India In the sixteenth century Portuguese men moved to the Indian Ocean basin to work as administrators and traders. This Indo-Portuguese drawing shows a Portuguese man speaking to an Indian woman, perhaps making a proposal of marriage. (Biblioteca Casanatense, Rome) Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Empires Spain Christopher Columbus Genoese – sailed for Spain, Ferdinand & Isabella Hero or villain Experienced in seafaring Trade and circumventing other countries Devote Christian Missionary vision Report to Spain Conversion of natives Gold & silver Believed he reached Asia (until dying day) Contribution had extraordinary impact on world history Conquest and colonization 2nd voyage Enslaved the people of Hispaniola Forerunner of Encomienda system Inept at governing – led to royal control of his conquered areas Empires Spain cont. The Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 Made by Pope Alexander VI Divided New World Spain – everything west Portugal – everything east Imaginary line 370 leagues west of the Cape Verdes Islands Ferdinand Magellan Commissioned by Charles V – further voyages when no gold/silver found in Caribbean Magellan 1st to circumnavigate the globe Route to Asia via the Atlantic Horrific 3 yr voyage Disasters at sea Starvation Mutinies Death of Magellan in the Philippines Demonstrated the vastness of the Pacific Led Spain to abandon its competition win Portugal for the Asian spice trade Empires Spain cont. Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1517): Discovered the Pacific Ocean after crossing the Isthmus of Panama in 1513. Spanish Conquistadores: began creating empires by conquering Indians Hernando Cortès (1485-1547): conquered the Aztecs in Mesoamerica by 1521. Francisco Pizarro (1478-1541): conquered the Inca Empire along the Andes mountains in modern-day Peru in 1532 Empires Spain cont. Hernando Cortes’ Conqueror - Mexico Few men – horses & cannons Fortuitous elements beyond his control Dissention w/n the Aztec empire Demoralized population Weakened leadership Aztec Empire – large/wealthy/sophisticated Montezuma & advisors made decisions logical for their culture – paved the way for Spanish victory Francisco Pizarro Incan conquest – Peru 1531 Incans known for engineering & construction Facing internal dissention Executed leader Atahualpa Took until 1570 to gain control Empires Spain cont. New World colonies 200,000 Spaniards immigrated in the 16thC soldiers & drifters Estab large agricultural/ranching estates Sugar plantations Silver mines – Bolivia & Mexico Encomienda system - forced labor Rapid decline of native pop Brutal exploitation Led to the death of 1000s Exposure to Eur disease Land converted from subsistence to cash crops Bartolome’ de Las Casas Empathized with natives – lamented cruelty Argued for the rights of natives Charles V responded by abolishing the worst abuses Empires Holland – Dutch Dominated world maritime trade – 2nd ½ of 17thC Financial center since 16thC 1602 estab Dutch East India Company Expanded their spice markets Ceylon Indonesian archipelago Monopoly – highly profitable Asian spice trade New World trade Briefly held a colony - New York France & England Less dramatic Jon Cabot Genoese Explored Newfoundland & New England for British Jacques Cartier Explored Quebec for France 1st permanent settlement for France in New World Portuguese in India Portuguese in India In the sixteenth century Portuguese men moved to the Indian Ocean basin to work as administrators and traders. This Indo-Portuguese drawing shows a Portuguese man speaking to an Indian woman, perhaps making a proposal of marriage. (Biblioteca Casanatense, Rome) Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Philip II Philip II Alonso Sanchez Coello (1531-1588), a Spanish court painter, portrays Philip II in an unflattering way. He tried to combine truth with respect, showing the king dressed in the austere black that was in fashion at the Spanish court, his hand fingering a rosary, and wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece (an order of knighthood) around his neck. The son of Emperor Charles V, Philip came to the throne at the age of 29, and had control over all Spanish colonial territories, the Netherlands, and a large area of Southern Italy. He was also a force to be reckoned with in England. (Museo del Prado) Copyright ©Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.