1. PPT European Exploration and land claims

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Warm Up #1
1. What drives humans to
continue to explore new
areas?
2. What are some dangers of
exploration?
3. What are some benefits of
exploration?
European Exploration
Objectives: Explain the reasons or motivations that drove Europeans to explore the world
- Curiosity of the Renaissance +
- Desire for Religious expansion from Reformation +
- New Technology and Discoveries from the
Scientific Revolution
The Fra Mauro
map, published
c. 1450 by the
Venetian monk
Fra Mauro
Europeans want to explore
the world for many reasons…
1. Religion
– Some wanted to escape religious conflicts of the
Reformation
– Many want to spread their branch of Christianity
as part of the competition of the Reformation
2. Growing Population strained Europe
– Not enough land for all of the sons (especially
younger sons), so they had to find new land
– Food shortages, supply shortages = need for new
people to trade with
3. Humanism
– People were looking for personal (individual) glory
– Liberal arts education brought scholars from Middle
East and Europe together
• Shared knowledge of worldly pleasures – spices, silks, etc.
• Shared knowledge of sailing and navigating
– Secularism drove people to want riches & worldly
goods
• Gold, spices, silks, etc.
4. To find Alternative Trade routes
– Italians and Muslims dominated the existing trade routes
• Italians controlled the roads in Europe & the Mediterranean
• Muslims controlled the overland routes from Asia (Silk Road)
• Italians & Muslims were able to make all the profits from the
trade
– Explorers sought a way to get around the Middle East &
Mediterranean
• Sailed around Africa
• Sailing north around Russia
• Sailing west across the Atlantic
New Tech…
• Sextant, Astrolabe and,
Caravel with Lateen Sail
(like the Nina)
Sextant
• The sextant measures the
angle between two
objects by using two
mirrors. Mirror A is only
slightly reflective, so the
person can see through it
to the horizon. Mirror B it
attached to the moveable
arm. As the arm is swung,
the sun reflects off of
Mirror B, onto Mirror A,
and then into the eye
piece. The viewer moves
the arm until the
reflection of the sun
directly overlaps the
horizon (as seen through
mirror A).
Astrolabe
• The astrolabe measures
the angle between the
horizon and a star (or
another object). It has a
line in the center that the
viewer makes parallel to
the horizon. Then, the
moveable arm of the
astrolabe is swung to line
up with a star in the sky.
Once it is correctly
aligned, the arm will
point to a degree
measurement on the
outside ring of the
astrolabe, which is the
viewer’s latitude.
Caravel with Lateen Sail
• This is a small caravel with lateen
sails, much like Columbus’s Nina.
The lateen sail made ships move
much more rapidly and allowed
them to turn in any direction.
However, not many sailors were
familiar with these types of sails.
One example of the difficulty that
arose with these sails was when
Columbus’s men actually changed
back to the slower square sails
before they left for their voyage
across the Atlantic.
Warm up
• What were the four reasons
that Europeans began to
Explore the world?
– Which do you think is the
most important?
• What or who has inspired
you in the past? (what did
they inspire you to do?)
Exploration required actions of
individuals to get started
• Marco Polo during the late Middle Ages (late 1200s to mid
1300s) - Italy
– Travelled over land from Italy to India & China, by boat to
Indonesia & Persia
– When he returned he brought back goods & he wrote down his
findings
• 1000s of copies were made, one of first books printed by printing press
• Many people were inspired by Polo: Columbus, Henry the Navigator
• Henry the Navigator (early 1400s) - Portugal
– Interested in exploring, reaching Asia by sea; funded explorations
of Africa
– Built a university at Sagres, Portugal
• Brought together Muslim, Jewish, and Christian scholars
• Introduced new charts, astrolabe, sextant, lateen sail, caravel to Europe
• Columbus (late 1400s, early
1500s) - Spain
– Made the voyage across the
Atlantic
• Ran in to the Caribbean, explored
Middle and South America, too
• Established the Columbian Exchange
between “New & Old Worlds”
• Vasco da Gama (late 1400s, early
1500s) - Portugal
– Made the voyage to India by
sailing around Africa
• It was cheaper than land travel and
there were no bandits
• But piracy developed, and seasonal
storms made this journey costly
• Ferdinand Magellan (early to mid
1500s) - Portugal
– His crew was the first to circumnavigate
the world
• Proved, once and for all, that the earth is
round
• Found many lands & peoples that Europeans
had never heard of
• Magellan died 2/3 of the way through in a
battle to convert indigenous Filipinos to
Catholicism
• Vasco Nunez de Balboa (early 1500s) –
Spain
– Trying to find a route from the Atlantic
Ocean to the Pacific
• Walks through Panama and reaches the
Pacific ocean
The Northwest Passage
• Jacques Cartier (1534) – France
– Searching for a “Northwest
Passage) (from Atlantic to the
Pacific)
– Explorers coastline and interior of
present day Canada
• John Cabot (1497) – English
– Searching for a “Northwest
Passage”
– North America (off of
Newfoundland) finds rich fishing
grounds
• Henry Hudson (1607-11) – Dutch
– Searching for a “Northwest
Passage”
– Explores region around present
day New York City
Discussion Questions
Review
• From your Map: list
the European
countries that
became involved in
the age of
exploration.
– (what do these
countries have in
common –
geographically?)
Essential Question:
What two individuals inspired the Age of
Exploration?
Activity:
1. Use the Map on page 485 in
your textbook to Map the
European Land Claims
Key
• England
• France
• Spain
• Portugal
• Netherlands
Questions to answer:
1. What geographic factor do all the European land
claims share in common? (Where are they all
located on the map?)
2. What explanation(s) exists for the similarity in the
locations of the European land claims?
3. Why do you think the land claims end where they
do? What/ who might have stopped Europeans in
their exploration beyond these points?
Activity:
1. Use the Map on page 485 in
your textbook to Map the
European Land Claims
Key
• England
• France
• Spain
• Portugal
• Netherlands
Questions to answer:
1. What geographic factor do all the European land
claims share in common? (Where are they all
located on the map?)
2. What explanation(s) exists for the similarity in the
locations of the European land claims?
3. Why do you think the land claims end where they
do? What/ who might have stopped Europeans in
their exploration beyond these points?
Map Review
Discussion Q’s
• Why do you think explorers
from different countries
followed similar routes?
Christopher Columbus
Analyzing Primary Sources:
• Introduction: “Whereas, Most Christian, High, Excellent, and
Powerful Princes, King and Queen of Spain and of the Islands of the
Sea, our Sovereigns, this present year 1492,.... Your Highnesses, as
Catholic Christians, and princes who love and promote the holy
Christian faith, and are enemies of the doctrine of Mahomet, and of
all idolatry and heresy, determined to send me, Christopher
Columbus, to the… countries of India, to see the said princes,
people, and territories, and to learn their disposition and the
proper method of converting them to our holy faith; and
furthermore directed that I should not proceed by land to the East,
as is customary, but by a Westerly route, in which direction we have
hitherto no certain evidence that any one has gone.
Columbian Exchange
vast global exchange of goods, animals and diseases from the
old world to the new world. (started by Columbus…)
Feast of Columbus…
Warm Up Questions
1. What allowed Europeans
to claim territories in the
Americas?
– For example why did the
Spanish claim central
America?
2. How did the Columbian
Exchange affect Europe?
How did it affect the
Americas?
Effects of Exploration
1. Competition
• Early on example (late 1400s)
– Spain versus Portugal
– The Pope settled the land dispute with the Line of
Demarcation
• Set a line between Columbus’s exploration & Portugal’s
Africa
• Everything west of the line was Spain’s
• Everything east of the line was Portugal’s
– Issue of land claims finally settled in the
• Treaty of Tordesillas & Treaty of Saragossa
How to stop a war between Catholic
Countries…
Portuguese land holdings
Spanish Land Holdings
2. European footholds
• Exploration for trade routes
leads to trade outposts
– Ex: Portuguese build small
forts along West Africa coast
for supplies and trading with
natives
• Trade forts lead to more
permanent settlements
– Ex: 1652 Dutch build Cape
Town to supply ships +
encourage immigration to
Town.
3. New Power Structure
• Exploration, trade and colonization
gives European countries power and
riches they had never had before.
– (Rise of first ‘World Powers’)
• Rise of Merchant / Business powers
– Ex: Dutch East India Company has full
sovereign (political body not controlled by outside forces)
powers over lands they visited.
• Prompts a response from Asian
powers…
– China, Korea and Japan all try to limit
European trading within their borders
with mixed success
4. Slave Trade
• Slavery/ slave trade already exists (since
ancient times)
• Develops into a very profitable business as
plantations (large land holdings) in the
Americas grow.
– Why slavery?
• Labor shortages in New World
– (few Europeans and Native Americas)
• Very large plantations in America
• Preexisting prejudices
Country Exploration & Impacts…
Portugal
• Builds a rim of trading outposts and controls
spice trade between Europe and Asia
Netherlands
• Establishes Cape Town and Gains a secure
foothold in Africa
Spain
• Takes over the Philippines and take over large
portions of South, Central and North America
Britain
• British East India Company uses an army of
sepoys (Indian troops) to take over most of
India by the late 1700s
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