The Diary of a Young Girl By Anne Frank Reading 4 15 June 1943 – 29 December 1943 1 Tuesday, 15 June, 1943 Mr. Vossen has stomach cancer; he is forced to retire to take care of his health He will die in November 1945 from cancer; Otto will attend his funeral on December 1. The office is forced to turn in their radio Though it was illegal to listen to British radio, many Dutch began to listen to the BBC and radio broadcasts from the Dutch government in exile. In 1943, in response to these acts of resistance, over one million radio sets were confiscated by the Nazis The radio has become their “source of courage” (84). They are using a clandestine radio The Dutch Resistance during World War II Sunday, 11 July, 1943 Anne has decided to keep her opinions to herself to keep the peace. Anne needs eyeglasses badly and Edith suggests sending her to the oculist with Mrs. Koophuis Anne is petrified to go outside Anne does not believe the plan will happen because the British have invaded Sicily, and everyone hopes the war will be over soon. 13 July, 1943 Anne reports her attempts at negotiation with Mr. Dussel over the use of the table in their shared room. (86-88). Do you think she is being fair? Why or why not? What is Mr. Dussel’s argument why he should not share the desk? How is the argument resolved? Anne Frank’s desk Friday, 16 July, 1943 At 7 am, Peter notices the warehouse door and the door to the street were open. Otto and Peter turn the radio to a German station The people in the Secret Annexe stay extremely quiet Mr. Koophuis tells them that the burglars pried the doors open with a crowbar. They stole two cashboxes, postal orders, checkbooks, and the coupons for 150 kilos of sugar. The money and typewriters were upstairs and safe. Friday, 23 July, 1943 Anne tells us what the group wants when they get out of hiding. Margot & Mr. Van Daan– a long, hot bath. Mrs. Van Daan– ice cream cakes Dussell- wants to see his wife Otto– wants to visit Mr. Vossen Peter– wants to visit town and the cinema Anne- wants a home of their own, to be able to move freely, and to go to school. Elli wants to buy fruit Grapes f.5.00 per kilo ($1.40 for 2.2 lbs) Gooseberries f.0.70 per pound($0.21) Peaches f.0.50 each ($0.14) Melon f.1.50 per kilo ($0.42) Monday, 26 July, 1943 Anne discusses how the Allies have begun to bomb Amsterdam, including two critical targets: Fokker aircraft plant Schiphol, Amsterdam’s airport Why do you think Anne prepares an “escape bag” when she admits the streets are “just as dangerous as an air raid” (91)? Benito Mussolini, the Italian dictator, stepped down as head of the armed forces and the government Since Mussolini was Hitler’s junior partner, this is a blow to the Axis powers, especially after Sicily was invaded by the Allies a few days prior. The Italian king Victor Emmanuel takes control and wishes to disassociate his regime from the Fascist Party, the movement founded by Mussolini in 1919 as Fasci di Combattimento. Many observers believe the removal of Mussolini is a first step towards Italy pulling out of the war altogether and declaring neutrality - but it seems clear the Allies are not prepared to accept anything less than unconditional surrender. BBC radio announcement Thursday, 29 July, 1943 While they are washing dishes, Dussell and Mrs. Van Daan criticize Anne for having been brought up knowing too much about “grown-up” subjects. They agree that she will not be able to get a husband or fall in love What does their reaction tell you about society’s expectations for women at this time? Anne goes on to criticize Mrs. Van Daan for not setting a good example for what a woman should be (94) Anne adds a postscript that reminds the reader that she was very angry when writing this entry– it’s not necessarily how she feels Another sign that Anne is thinking about publishing the diary Tuesday, 3 August, 1943 The air raids continue to get worse Anne mentions how Mr. & Mrs. Van Daan frequently fight. “An Unusual Couple” video Wednesday, 4 August, 1943 Thursday, 5 August, 1943 Monday, 9 August, 1943 Friday, 20 August, 1943 Monday, 23 August, 1943 Anne describes the complicated daily schedule of the annex, pointing out that it is very different from the routine that ordinary people would follow during ordinary times. Her hour-by-hour account is filled with humorous and not very complimentary descriptions of the other people in the annex. A sign that Anne intends for the diary to be published; her personal diary does not need this amount of detail. Tuesday, 10 August, 1943 Anne tries to use what her mother calls “the Art of Living” to make life in the Secret Annexe better Tries to stay positive Example: Instead of feeling upset when she gets out of bed in the morning, she tells herself, “You’ll be back in a second.” Anne receives new shoes Mr. Dussel almost causes trouble by asking Miep to bring him a banned book. Miep is run into by an S.S. car Luckily, they do not make her go back to headquarters with them Westertoren Church Westerkerk Church The bells ring every 15 minutes Anne comes to love the bells, like a faithful friend. During World War II, the bells were removed to prevent them from being melted down to make weapons. Rembrandt van Rijn, the artist, is buried here in an unmarked grave. Friday, 10 September, 1943 The group hears on the BBC that Italy has signed an unconditional armistice to the Allies Afterwards, in a personal message to the Italian people, Italian Prime Minister Pietro Badoglio confirmed the surrender and even hinted his people should turn against their former allies, the Germans: BBC news broadcast President FDR reminded the American people that the war was not yet over: “The time has not yet come for celebration.” Anne is worried about Mr. Koophuis because he has to have a serious abdominal surgery Thursday, 16 September, 1943 Anne tells the reader she has been taking medication each night for depression. In each entry in this section, her anxiety grows. She’s just a young girl and can no longer be strong. Anne worries that “VM” will find out about the hiding place. VM is Willem van Maaren, the warehouse manager He’s the inquisitive type and becomes suspicious. He sets “traps” in the warehouse (papers on the edge of tables so they fall off as you walk past) The group wonders how they can get rid of him without him going to the police with his suspicions. Wednesday, 29 September, 1943 Elli becomes exasperated with the number of errands the people in the Secret Annexe ask her to run She is also responsible for doing her work in the office, too. Sunday, 17 October, 1943 Friday, 29 October, 1943 Koophuis returns to work from surgery, but his stomach continues to upset him. The Van Daans have run out of money Mr. Van Daan sells Mrs. Van Daan’s fur coat Mrs. Van Daan wants to save the money to use to buy new clothes after the war. Mr. Van Daan convinces her they need the money now. There has been a lot of quarrelling in the Annexe lately. Anne compares herself to a bird with broken wings, longing for fresh air and sunshine Metaphor uses comparisons to nature to express her feelings and desires that are too difficult to describe in literal terms. Wednesday, 3 November, 1943 Mr. Frank asks Mr. Kleiman for a children’s Bible so that Anne can learn about the New Testament The Franks and Van Daans identify themselves as Germans first and Jews second. This identity became unclear when Hitler revoked their citizenship. Mr. Frank demonstrates his open-mindedness when he decides to buy Anne a Bible. The Franks and Van Daans celebrate both Christian and Jewish holidays They do not keep kosher Monday, 8 November, 1943 Anne has nightmares Miep tells Anne that she envies the peace and quiet of the annex. describes more of Miep’s role in keeping the annex running and gives us a sense of the amount of work Miep has to do to keep them supplied in secret. Anne understands Miep’s envy of the people in the annex, since the situation outside is not favorable for any of the Dutch people, even non-Jews. The people who protect the annex are under just as much stress as those inside. Anne knows that Miep is unaware of the difficulties of their life in hiding, such as the constant quarreling and frustration at being in such close quarters. Miep does not understand what it is like to be a young girl, trapped in a small attic with a whole world just out of reach. Anne, who is constantly afraid of being discovered, compares the eight residents to a patch of blue sky surrounded by dark clouds. The clouds are coming in, and they can see both the destruction below them and the peace above them. Another example of her using the natural world to explain her feelings The natural world is what she misses most in hiding. Thursday, 11 November, 1943 Anne writes about her most prized possession, her fountain pen, sent to her by her grandmother She describes her history with the pen The pen was left on the table while the group rubbed the beans free of mold before cooking It is accidentally swept into the fire with the rubbish and burnt. Wednesday, 17 November, 1943 Elli is forced to stay away from the annex for six weeks because of an outbreak of diphtheria at her house Margot takes a correspondence class in Latin, in Elli’s name November 16 marked one year of Mr. Dussell living in the Annexe. Mrs. Van Daan makes it clear she feels he should give them a thank you present. He gives Edith a plant and does not give anything to Mrs. Van Daan. Anne notes that Mr. Dussel has not once thanked them for taking him into the annex Saturday, 27 November, 1943 Anne dreams that she sees Lies Goosen, her best friend, who asks Anne to rescue her. Lies (left) and Anne in school before the war Lies is a pseudonym for Hanneli Pick-Goslar Anne regrets not treating Lies better and feels guilty that she is still relatively safe while Lies is suffering. Lies and Anne later reunite in Bergen-Belsen Lies survives the war, moves to Israel, and becomes a nurse. She has three children and ten grandchildren. Monday, 6 December, 1943 St. Nicholas Day comes again Anne decorates a laundry basket with colorful paper and fills it with shoes. She and her father write verses and put one in each shoe Friday, 24 December, 1943 Anne is still grateful that her situation is better than that of other Jewish children However, she cannot help feeling jealous of Mrs. Koophuis’s children. Her children can go outside and play with friends, while Anne’s family and friends are trapped in the annex like “lepers.” She misses having a mother that understands her She often thinks about the “Mumsie” she will be to her own children. Saturday, 25 December, 1943 Cryptic entry about Otto discussing the love of his youth with Anne “I believe that Pim talked about it because he who ‘knows the secrets of so many other hearts’ had to express his own feelings for once; because otherwise Pim never says a word about himself, and I don’t think Margo has any idea of all Pim has had to go through”. The Hidden Life of Otto Frank by Carol Ann Lee Otto’s marriage to Edith may have been "a business arrangement" to rid himself of growing debt with his wife's dowry and to have the children that he so desperately longed for. In an entry on February 8, 1944, Anne wrote about her parents’ marriage: "I have the impression that Daddy married Mummy because he felt she would be a suitable wife. I have to admit I admire Mummy for the way she assumed the role of his wife and has never, as far as I know, complained or been jealous. . . . Daddy certainly admired Mummy's attitude and thought she had an excellent character. . . . What kind of marriage has it turned out to be? No quarrels or differences of opinion-but hardly an ideal marriage. Daddy respects Mummy and loves her, but not with the kind of love I envision for a marriage. . . . Daddy's not in love. He kisses her the way he kisses us. . . . One day Daddy is bound to realize that while, on the outside, she has never demanded his total love, on the inside, she has slowly but surely been crumbling away. She loves him more than anyone, and it's hard to see this kind of love not being returned" How do you view the marriage of Otto and Edith Is it any less of a marriage because Edith was not the great love of Otto's life? Wednesday, 29 December, 1943 Anne dreams about Lies again and her own Grandmother Thinks about how her grandmother kept her internal disease a secret the whole time. “A person can be lonely even if he is loved by many people, because he is still not the “One and Only” to anyone” The appearance of Anne’s grandmother in her dream emphasizes Anne’s longing for security. Anne’s dreams reflect the profound feelings of sadness and loneliness that she feels she must put aside for the good of the group.