History of Costume

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History of Costume
Ages – Edwardian Era
{ Dark
500 A.D. - 1914
The Dark Ages

Saxon and Frankish Era 500-599 A.D.

A continuation of the tunic

Belted at the waist or hip
Men begin to wear trouser like garments
 Leggings
 Cloaks – fur lined & some wool


Fastened with brooches
Thomas, P.W. (2008) Early Clothing Costume History 5001066AD: Saxon, Frankish & Anglo-Saxon Clothing retrieved
from: http://www.fashion-era.com/ancient_costume/clothingsaxon-frankish-anglo.htm
The Dark Ages

The Anglo – Saxon Era 700 – 999

Similar to the Saxon & Frankish Era



Hoods were added to cloaks in the 9th century
The wrap over coat and waist coat appeared
Began to see class distinction through dress




Nobility had embellishments on the collar, waist or
border of their tunics
Nobility wore longer tunics
Working class & Peasants wore plain shorter tunics
THINK MOVIE: King Arthur
The Dark Ages
Anglo-Saxon Lady & Women
Anglo-Saxon King & Queen
Anglo-Saxon Warrior & Man
Thomas, P.W. (2008) Early Clothing Costume History 5001066AD: Saxon, Frankish & Anglo-Saxon Clothing retrieved
from: http://www.fashion-era.com/ancient_costume/clothingsaxon-frankish-anglo.htm
The Dark Ages

The Anglo – Saxon Era 1000-1099

Men





Continued to wear tunics but shorter
Piercings became popular
Coifs – flat, round caps
Long stockings with feet & short boots
Women



Long woolen gown – sometimes 2 layers
 Inner gown tight sleeves; outer gown loose sleeves
Wore cloak or mantle over outer gown
Began to wear head covering unless very young
The Dark Ages 500-1100
Think Movies:
Beowolf & Grendel
Tristan & Isolde
The 13th Warrior
Medieval/Middle Ages

Early Period: 1100-1199
simple shaped fitted tunic for men
 Long, wide gown with decorative embroidery
for women

The Bliaut was a dress worn by woman or men
in this time period.
 Hose took the place of trousers
 THINK MOVIE: Robin Hood

Medieval/Middle Ages

After 1200

Men

Tight short clothes with long pointed
shoes

The longer the point the higher the status
Medieval/Middle Ages

After 1200

Women
Began to use tight lacing on women's
to create a form fitting shape
 girdled at the hips
 created a long - waisted appearance
 Long, trailing gowns
 Hennin, worn 1300- 1400,was a cone-like hat
resembling the spires of the cathedral spire.

Late Medieval Ages
1400-1500
 Fashion in this era was greatly
influenced by the high class
society and the European
Kings and Queens.
 The Surcoat was a popular
fashion accessory for the men
of this era.
 Peasants had a lot of different
clothing styles because each
particular style identified the
woman with her hometown.

Medieval/Middle Ages
Think Movies:
Becket
BraveHeart
A Knight’s Tale
The Hunchback of Notre Dame
Robin Hood
http://www.erasofelegance.com/entertainment/medievalmovies.html
Renaissance: 1400-1500
Shapes becoming rounder
 Accentuate Physique
 Drawers & Padding for men
 Codpiece for men


a decorative triangular piece of fabric
attached at the groin.
Men wore blouses with exposed chest
 Pregnancy Pillows for Women


the maternal look was fashionable.
Looser, sexier clothing
 THINK: Romeo & Juliet

Renaissance: 1400-1500
Renaissance: 1500 - 1600
Elizabethan Era
Tighter, stiff, more rigid clothing
 Heavy and Luxurious Fabrics
 Slashing - cut in the outer surfaces of
garments

doublets, sleeves and gowns
 exposed the contrasting color of the linings
beneath


Ruff worn by both men & women

large stiff collar worn at this time.
Renaissance: 1500 - 1600
Elizabethan Era

Farthingale for Women

stiff metal cone-shaped article worn
under skirts
Corset
 V-Waist
 Accessories


Pearls, heeled shoes
Tights for men
 THINK: Shakespeare in Love

Elizabethan Era 1500-1600
Renaissance
Think Movies:
Hamlet
Elizabeth
Ever After
Shakespeare in Love
Romeo & Juliet
The Agony & the Ecstasy
http://www.erasofelegance.com/entertainment/renaissancemovies.html
Cavalier 1620-1660
France Begins to influence Fashion
Fashion which said “I don’t have to work for a living.”
 Sensual & Soft look, less stiffness
 Waistlines began to rise
 Ruffs were replaced by lace or linen collars
 Sleeves began to become fuller
 Men began wearing breeches instead of hose
 Accessories




Turned down boots
Tall broad hats
Ribbons & bows
Doublets were pointed and fitted
close to the body, with tight
sleeves
 Sleeveless leather jerkins were
worn by soldiers
 Think “Three Musketeers”

Restoration 1660 - 1715
Women’s Fashion
Full, loose sleeves that end at elbow
 Tightly corseted
 Mantua


Hung from the shoulders to the floor




worn for 'undress' wear
The overskirt was looped back
and held by ribbon bows.
Train length determined by social status
Hair worn in tight curls

Got bigger and higher as the period went on
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costume_History/rest
oration.htm
Restoration 1660 - 1715
Men’s Fashion
Breeches became very baggy
 Coat and Waist coat
 Ruffled long sleeved shirt
 Cravats worn over the neck
 Periwig


Wig worn by men throughout
the period
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/res
ources/Costume_History/restoration.htm
Restoration 1660 - 1715
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/res
ources/Costume_History/restoration.htm
Cavalier/Restoration
Think Movies:
Girl with the Pearl Earring
Pirates of the Carribean
The Man in the Iron Mask
The Three Muskateers
The Scarlet Letter
http://www.erasofelegance.com/entertainment/baroquemovies.html
Historical Costume and the Movies
Assignment
Directions:
1.
Go to email and open the document I sent
you.
2.
Find 12 pictures from 12 different movies
that represents 12 different time periods.
3.
Paste the picture in the box provided, then
fill in the information in the corresponding
box.
4.
Save your document, then email it to me
when you are complete.
5.
You will be getting more notes Friday and
will have time to finish.
Movie Title: 300
Time Period: Greek B.C.
Evidence of Time Period:
Greek Chiton dress with belts
holding in place
Historically Accurate: No,
Chiton would cover whole
torso front and back. You can
tell double sided tape was used
to hold dress in place.
Website:
http://photos.lucywho.com/que
en-gorgo-photo-galleryc16025998.html
Georgian 1700-1775
Men’s Fashion
Flat Front Breeches—breeches with a
buttoned front flap.
 The Justaucorps for men was the
forerunner of today’s suit coat.
 The Spencer was a short jacket without
tails.
 Queue—A long pigtail or ponytail that
men would wear on the back of the neck
with their own hair or with their wig.

Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Georgian Costume History. Retrieved
from:http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costum
e_History/georgian.htm
Georgian 1700-1775
Thomas, P.W. (2008) King George III - 1760-1820 - Daily &
Occupational Dress of Men. Retrieved from :
http://www.fashion-era.com/english-costume/1760-1820-georgeiii-mens-clothes.htm
Georgian 1700-1775
Women’s Fashion

Panniers—baskets made of
reed or whale bone held
together with ribbon used to
hold out the skirt

The hoop was first funnelshaped, but from 1730s to 1740s
grew very broad at the sides and
flat front and back.
Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Georgian Costume History. Retrieved
from:http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costum
e_History/georgian.htm
Georgian 1700-1775
Women’s Fashion

Watteau Gown— a loose sack or dress,
worn over a tight bodice and very full
underskirt.
The loose folds falling from the shoulders in
back became part of the skirt.
 The front of the gown varied in design, either
hanging loose or fitted at the waist, worn closed
or open, and, if open, revealing a bodice and
underskirt.
 The elbow-length sleeves had vertical pleats and
soft, wide cuffs.
Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Georgian Costume History. Retrieved

from:http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costum
e_History/georgian.htm
Georgian 1700-1775
Women’s Fashion
Pompadour—large hair-do associated with the
French court and often had birds or toys placed in
it.
 Shepherdess Hat—A hat worn by fashionable
women that resembled a shepardess hat. It was
referring to the romantic life of the country.
 Mob Cap—Large cap with soft, full crown and
wide brim which almost hid the face; usually
trimmed with ribbon bands and loops

Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Georgian Costume History. Retrieved
from:http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costum
e_History/georgian.htm
Georgian
Think Movies:
A Tale of Two Cities
Marie Antoinette
The Duchess
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
The Patriot
The Last of the Mohicans
http://www.erasofelegance.com/entertainment/georgianmovies.html
THINK MOVIE: Marie Antoinette
Empire 1790-1815
Men's Fashion
Breeches became longer and more tightly
fitted
 Trousers or Pantaloons for the street
 Coats were cutaway with long tails and
standing collars
 Waist coats were high waisted and squared
off at the bottom
 Hair wax and mutton chops were the new
hair fad
 Wellington style boot

Empire 1790-1815
Women's Fashion
The triumph of the “undressed” look
 Followed the simple flowing lines of
the Greek silhouette
 Empire Waist

High waisted, natural look
 No corsets


Accessories
Gloves
 Vinaigrette: small drawstring handbag

Empire
Think Movies:
Becoming Jane
Emma
Pride & Prejudice
The Count of Monte Cristo
The Brother’s Grimm
http://www.erasofelegance.com/entertainment/regencymovies.html
THINK MOVIE: Emma
Romantic Era 1815-1840
Men's Fashion

Peg-Top Trousers–Trousers that
were wide and pleated at the top
and very narrow at the ankles.

The name peg-top originally
applied to a boy’s cone-shaped
spinning top.
Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Romantic Costume. Retrieved from:
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costume_His
tory/romantic.htm
Romantic Era 1815-1840
Men's Fashion
Sack Coat–A loose-fitting coat
ending at the finger tips and
having high short lapels. It was
used in sports and in commerce.
 Great Coat–An overcoat usually
made out of wool and not as fitted
as a regular coat.
 Frock Coat–A double-breasted
coat having long skirts of equal
length in front and back.

Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Romantic Costume. Retrieved from:
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costume_His
tory/romantic.htm
Romantic Era 1815-1840
Men's Fashion Accessories
Ascot–A scarf tied in a knot with
horizontal ends, then crossed
diagonally. The whole usually held in
place with a jeweled stickpin.
 Bowler–A stiff felt hat with a low,
round crown and narrow brim; the
bowler, similar to a derby, has a
slightly wider brim and roll at the
sides.

Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Romantic Costume. Retrieved from:
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costume_His
tory/romantic.htm
Romantic Era 1815-1840
Women's Fashion

Beret Sleeves - cut from a circle with
an opening in the center for the arm
and this was gathered and bound
into a band. The outer circle was
gathered and set into the armhole

Gigot Sleeves–A full sleeve with
more fullness at the elbow than at
the shoulder or wrist.
Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Romantic Costume. Retrieved from:
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costume_His
tory/romantic.htm
Romantic Era 1815-1840
Women's Fashion

Wider Skirt Hemlines:
Gored into panels from 1820-1828 to
added width at hemline, but keep tight
waist
 Decoration of stuffed rouleau tubes,
Italian quilting and flounces and frills
were added to push out the skirt hem
width in an architectural way.

Thomas, P.W. (2008). Romantic Era – Fashion History. Retreived
from: http://www.fashion-era.com/romantic_era.htm#Romantic
Era 1825-1835
Romantic Era 1815-1840
Women's Fashion

Pelerine Collars (1836):
covered wide shoulders and
added modesty.

The width of the lace pelerine
reached about 31 inches when at
its widest fashion.
Thomas, P.W. (2008). Romantic Era – Fashion History. Retreived
from: http://www.fashion-era.com/romantic_era.htm#Romantic
Era 1825-1835
Romantic Era 1815-1840
Women's Fashion

Hats: Large romantic wide hats,
ornately trimmed with feathers,
loops of ribbons and bows


complemented the wide shoulder
lines of the 1830s
Bonnets were virtually
interchangeable with hats
Coal scuttle bonnet styles with deep
crowns accommodated the high
 Apollo knot: hair style of a high twist on
top of the head.
Thomas, P.W. (2008). Romantic Era – Fashion History. Retreived

from: http://www.fashion-era.com/romantic_era.htm#Romantic
Era 1825-1835
Victorian Era – Crinoline
1837 - 1860
Men’s Fashion
Prince Albert Coat Another name
for the double-breasted frock coat
with satin lapels, named after the
consort of Queen Victoria who
favored the style.
 String Tie Basic ribbon, often black,
tied in a bow with the ends hanging
down.
 Gaiters Covers that covered the shoe
so they wouldn't get muddy.

Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Crinoline Costume. Retrieved from:
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costume
_History/crinoline.htm
Victorian Era – Crinoline
1837 - 1860
Men’s Fashion
Dundrearies Long side burnes,
Lamb Chops, worn my Lord
Dundreary on Our American
Cousin, by Tom Taylor.
 Stove-Pipe Hat A tall, cylindrical hat
with very little brim; worn by men.
 Pince Niz A style of eye glasses that
pinched the nose.

Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Crinoline Costume. Retrieved from:
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costume
_History/crinoline.htm
Victorian Era – Crinoline
Women's Fashion 1837 - 1860
Return to the look of demure prim
gentility
 Big hats leave and bonnets return
 The Gigot sleeve collapses in for a
much narrower sleeve and dropped
shoulder line.
 Tight, pointed longer boned bodice
to emphasize a small waistline
 Pantalettes: Leg coverings of lace and
ruffles that extended below the
knees

Thomas, P.W. (2008). Early Victorian Costume and Fashion
History 1837-1860. Retrieved from: http://www.fashionera.com/early_victorian_fashion.htm
Victorian Era – Crinoline
Women's Fashion 1837-1860
Dolman: A three-quarter-length
outer wrap made of brocade, silk, or
woolen fabric with sleeves cut in one
with the body. .
 Pagoda Sleeves A sleeve shaped like
a funnel, tight above and gradually
widening at the bottom, often
finishing in several ruffles over a soft
lawn under-sleeve.
 Sleeves were off the shoulders for
evening wear for upper class.

Thomas, P.W. (2008). Early Victorian Costume and
Fashion History 1837-1860. Retrieved from:
http://www.fashion-era.com/early_victorian_fashion.htm
Victorian Era – Crinoline
Women's Fashion 1837-1860

Bell shaped skirts become so large
they are more dome shaped.
Held up by 6 layers of petticoats
 Supported by stiffer fabrics with
“Crin” woven in horsehair to make
fabrics stiffer.



Crinoline: any garment that used this
type of lining to make it stiff
Crinoline cage: metal steel frame
cage that freed women of petticoats
Thomas, P.W. (2008). Early Victorian Costume and Fashion
History 1837-1860. Retrieved from: http://www.fashionera.com/early_victorian_fashion.htm
Victorian 1865-1890
Four factors that begin to influence fashion
1.
2.
3.
4.
The invention of the sewing machine
Fashion becomes couture design led
Synthetic dyes allow for intense colors
Dome skirt started to have a flat front and a
dramatic leaning back.
Thomas, P.W. (2008). Mid-Late Victorian Era Fashion.
Retrieved from: http://www.fashion-era.com/midlate_victorian_fashion.htm
Victorian 1865-1890
Men's Fashion
Blazer—A lightweight sport jacket.
 Norfolk Jacket—A jacket with box
pleats or straps of the same material
passing over the belt and extending
from shoulder to hem in front and
back; usually worn for sport occasions.
 Inverness—A full, sleeveless cape
which fitted closely around the neck;
from Inverness in Scotland.

Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Bustle Costume. Retrieved from:
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costume
_History/bustle.htm
Victorian 1865-1890
Men's Fashion
Knickerbockers—Full, knee-length
breeches gathered in at the knee
 Four-in-hand Tie—A type of necktie
originally used by coachmen that is
tied in a slip knot.
 Straw Boater—A man's hard straw hat
coated with shellac from India that
became popular for summer outings
and sporting events in the 1870s

Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Bustle Costume. Retrieved from:
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costume
_History/bustle.htm
Victorian - Bustle
Women’s Fashion
 Bustle—Whalebone or steel strips
placed in the top back of the
petticoat or in a separate panier puff
in order to hold out the elaborate
draping at the back of the over skirt.
 Bloomers—Loose underdrawers
usually gathered at the knee.
 Basque—A short, skirt-like
termination of an upper garment
(originally on the male doublet)
Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Bustle Costume. Retrieved from:
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costume
_History/bustle.htm
Victorian - Bustle
Women’s Fashion
 The Soft Bustle Fashion Silhouette
1867-1875
 Apron style tablier top layer half
skirt
 contrasting underskirts and gown
linings were all revealed as the
over top skirt was divided or
turned back.
Thomas, P.W. (2008). Mid-Late Victorian Era Fashion.
Retrieved from: http://www.fashion-era.com/midlate_victorian_fashion.htm
Victorian - Bustle
Women’s Fashion
 From 1870, ball gowns always had a
train.


by 1873 the train was seen in day dress.
By 1875 soft polonaise bustle styles
were becoming so extreme that the
soft fullness began to drop down the
back of the garment and form itself
into a tiered, draped and frilled train
Victorian - Bustle
Women’s Fashion
 Victorian Silhouette 1878-1901
 Princess Line and the Cuirasse
Bodice


soft polonaise style bustle styles were
replaced by Princess sheath garments
without a waist seam with bodice and
skirt cut in one.
Cuirasse bodice: corset like and
dipped even deeper both front and
back extending well down the hips
creating the look of a body encased
in armour.
Thomas, P.W. (2008). Mid-Late Victorian Era Fashion.
Retrieved from: http://www.fashion-era.com/midlate_victorian_fashion.htm
Victorian - Bustle
Women’s Fashion
 The New Hard Bustle of 1883
 jutting out shelf like style of bustle

larger than ever as a hard shape that
gave women a silhouette like the
hind legs of a horse
Minimal drapery in comparison to
earlier bustles
 Slimmer more fitted severely tailored
princess bodice, with a much flatter
front.

Thomas, P.W. (2008). Mid-Late Victorian Era Fashion.
Retrieved from: http://www.fashion-era.com/midlate_victorian_fashion.htm
Victorian (both eras)
Think Movies:
Far and Away
The Phantom of the Opera
Gangs of New York
Gone With the Wind
Glory
Cold Mountain
The Mask of Zorro
Sherlock Holmes
http://www.erasofelegance.com/entertainment/victorianmovies.html
Edwardian Era 1890 -1914
Men’s Fashion
Chesterfield—A fitted dress
overcoat with hidden buttons
and a velvet collar
 Kickers—Full breeches
gathered or pleated into knee
bands and buckled at the
knee

Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Fin de Siecle Costume - The Gay
90's. retrieved from:
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costum
e_History/findesiecle.htm
Edwardian Era 1890 -1914
Men’s Hats
Panama Hat—A hand-woven hat of fine
straw from Ecuador and Colombia, South
America.
 For-and-Aft Cap—A cap having a visor
front and back, often worn with an
Inverness cape.
 Derby—A stiff felt hat with a low, round
crown and narrow brim; the bowler has a
slightly wider brim and a roll at the sides.
 Homberg—A carefully blocked, stiff felt
hat with a medium tapering crown creased
in the middle and a brim that was rolled
up on the sides and finished in grosgrain
ribbon

Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Fin de Siecle Costume - The Gay
90's. retrieved from:
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costum
e_History/findesiecle.htm
Edwardian Era 1890 -1914
Women’s Fashion 1890-1910
Tailor Made—Mass-produced, ready-towear clothing that had a tailored fit often
wool or serge because of the tailoring
quality.
 Leg-o’-Mutton—A sleeve that was
extremely wide at the top and tapered at the
wrist.
 Shirtwaist—A woman’s top detached from
the skirt. At first the focal point was the
shoulders then it moved to the front.

Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Fin de Siecle Costume - The Gay
90's. retrieved from:
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costum
e_History/findesiecle.htm
Edwardian Era 1890 -1914
Women’s Fashion 1890-1910

Gibson Girl—More often associated
with the topknot hair style. Also a
blouse with a single pleat which
extended over each shoulder front
and back, hiding the armseye of the
shirtwaist.

Image of 'The New Woman' who was
competitive, sporty and emancipated
as well as beautiful.
Robinson,, S.R. (2010). Fin de Siecle Costume - The Gay
90's. retrieved from:
http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resources/Costum
e_History/findesiecle.htm
Edwardian Era 1890 -1914
Women’s Fashion 1900 -1907

The S-Bend corset and pouter pigeon
effect


The high collar, S bend corset, trained
skirt and lavish hat all had an effect on
the posture of an Edwardian lady and it
gave her a certain swaying grandeur.
Evening wear

exceptionally low sweetheart, square and
round décolleté necklines allowed
women to wear quantities of fine jewelry.
No cleavage was visible as the bust was
suppressed into a monobosom. Thomas, P.W. (2008). La Belle Époque Edwardian Fashion
History. Retrieved from: http://www.fashionera.com/la_belle_epoque_1890-1914_fashion.htm
Edwardian Era 1890 -1914
Women’s Accessories

Gainsborough Hat— velvet, beaver, or
straw hat having a low crown and a broad
brim, trimmed with feathers.
Feathers
 Gloves
 Parasols
 Bags

Thomas, P.W. (2008). La Belle Époque Edwardian Fashion
History. Retrieved from: http://www.fashionera.com/la_belle_epoque_1890-1914_fashion.htm
Edwardian Era 1890 -1914
Think Movies:
Anne of Green Gables
Titanic
Finding Neverland
My Fair Lady
Legends of the Fall
http://www.erasofelegance.com/entertainment/edwardianmovies.html
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