The Von Thunen Model AP Human Geography Review: What is a model? • Models are examples that help us better understand a major concept or idea. • Models are NOT exact and are flexible. • Models are NOT perfect. • Models might look different in reality than the do in theory. The Model, again. Historical Background • “A Portion of Each Crop is Eaten By the Wheels!”- von Thunen. Germany, 1820’s. • Developed by Johann Heinrich von Thunen in the early 1800’s (19th century) • Based on the layout of Rostock, Germany • Noticed a pattern of 4 rings developed around the central city. – Each ring was a different type of agriculture. • Created before highways, railroads, factories, etc. The Big Idea! • Farmers grow certain crops closer to the market (aka central city) while others are grown farther away. • Why? It’s all about the Benjamin$, baby! • Decision to grow certain crops in certain places is based on profit. The Formula • Profit= Market Price – Production Costs • Production costs include cost of labor, equipment, and TRANSPORTATION! • Factor 1: The bulkier the product, the more it costs to transport. • Factor 2: The more perishable a product, the closer to the market it has to be. • Factor 3: The more land a product needs, the farther from the central city it should be (land closer to city is more expensive) • All of these must be considered when deciding what to grow where! Bid-Rent Curve • As distance from city center increases, cost of land goes down. The Rings • Ring 1: Dairy/ Commercial Gardening – Easily perishable goods – Located too far, goods go bad, no profit • Ring 2: Forest (building material/ fuel) – Not perishable but very heavy! • Ring 3: Extensive Crops (grains) – Not as heavy as wood, can be stored for longer periods of time. • Ring 4: Livestock – Needs a lot of land – Perishable once slaughtered, but animals can transport themselves! • Beyond the rings: Wilderness – Too far from city, to expensive to transport anything. One last time.