Chapter 1: Aboriginal Societies

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Chapter 1: Aboriginal Societies
“Who are the diverse Aboriginal
people who have contributed to the
building of the country we now call
Canada?”
Definitions
• Culture: A way of life or a way of being shared by a group of
people; culture includes the knowledge, experiences, and values
a group shares and that shape the way its members see the
world.
• pluralistic society: A society made up of many different groups
of people, each with its own unique identities, ideas,
perspectives, and culture; developing a sense of respect for all
cultures.
Culture
• Culture is the way of life or a way of being that
is shared by a group of people.
• Canada is a pluralistic society.
• We are a society made up of many groups of
people each with a unique identities, ideas,
cultures and ways of seeing the world.
• Pluralism means we respect and value the
individual and collective opinions and identities
of all people.
Brainstorm
What are some of the different cultures we see
and appreciate in our school, community and
country?
First Nations
• The first nations who lived in Canada before it
became the country we know today, formed a
pluralistic society of their own.
• Each group had its own ideas, world, view,
language, spiritual beliefs, government and way of
life.
• We are going to study three of these groups:
The Haudenosaunee, Mi’kmaq and and
Anishinabe.
Values and Beliefs
Read the quotation carefully. What values and beliefs of Aboriginal Societies
do you think are being expressed by the speaker?
Our responsibilities to Mother Earth are the foundation of our
spirituality, culture and traditions. -Cheif Harold Turner (Swampy
Cree)
Values and Beliefs
Please turn to the “Values and Beliefs” page in your booklet.
Read each quotation carefully. What values and beliefs of Aboriginal Societies
do you think are being expressed by the speaker?
Record your response below each question.
Chapter Question
1.Do the values and beliefs discussed on page 5 exist in the
broader Canadian society today? Provide specific examples.
(5)
Definitions
• Natural World: The land, water, mountains, forests,
plants, wildlife, and climate.
• core values: An important idea or belief about how
people should live.
• world view: A way of looking at the world that reflects
one’s core values.
• Indigenous people: The original inhabitants of a given
area.
Definitions
• traditional teachings: A unique belief of the First
Nations passed down orally from generation to
generation that explains ex: how the earth was created
or how people came to exist.
• Elder: A respected member of an Aboriginal
community who uses Traditional Teachings, experience
and wisdom to help people in his or her community
make good decisions.
Values and Viewpoints
 The First Nations in North America are diverse
peoples. Each group has its own ideas, world view,
language, spiritual beliefs, government and way of
life.
Think back: They are an example of what type of
society?
Values and Viewpoints
 The First Nations in North America are diverse
peoples. Each group has its own ideas, world view,
language, spiritual beliefs, government and way of
life.
Think back: They are an example of what type of
society?
A pluralistic society
Diversity
 First Nations peoples have lived in all parts of the
land we now call Canada.
 Each First Nation developed a unique
culture suited to its surroundings in the
natural world.
 The land, water, mountains, forests, plants,
wildlife, and climate all played an important role in
developing cultures as diverse as the Canadian
landscape.
World Views
 Although there were many unique First Nations
cultures, these diverse peoples also shared some
core values.
 Combined individual and core values make up a
world view.
World Views
• Many First Nations peoples (including the
Mi’kmaq, Anishinabe and Haudenosaunee) shared
values relating to their relationships with the
Creator, the natural world, other people and
themselves.
• For example, they believed the following:
World Views
1. People are not separate from nature or from the
non-living world. Everything on earth is
connected to everything else.
2. The wisdom and experience of the Elders is highly
valued. Elders deserve the respect of all members
of the community.
3. A spiritual world exists. It plays a very important
role in all the happens on earth.
4. People must live in harmony with each other and
in balance with nature.
World Views
• What related ideas/values are being identified in the
song “Colours of the Wind” from Disney’s Pocahontas?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TkV-of_eN2w
World Views
“The rainstorm and the river are my brothers
The heron and the otter are my friends
And we are all connected to each other
In a circle, in a hoop that never ends”
“You think the only people who are people
Are the people who look and think like you
But if you walk the footsteps of a stranger
You'll learn things you never knew you never knew”
Indigenous Peoples
•
First Nations peoples are indigenous to North
America. This means that they are the original
people of this land.
•
First Nations beliefs are often passed from
generation to generation through traditional
teachings.
•
These teachings also help explain the
relationships among the plants, animals, land,
people and the spirit world.
Keepers of Knowledge
Traditional teachings have been
passed down orally from
generation to generation by
Elders.
• Elders have traditionally been
the most respected members of
Aboriginal communities.
• They use their experience and
wisdom to help people in their
communities make good
decisions and keep their
cultures alive!
•
Agnes Semaganis - Elder Poundmaker First Nation
Keepers of Knowledge
•
What types of things do you
think may have been passed
down because of Elders?
Agnes Semaganis - Elder Poundmaker First Nation
Keepers of Knowledge
What types of things do you
think may have been passed
down because of Elders?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Language
Traditions
Ceremonies
Laws
Skills
Histories
Agnes Semaganis - Elder Poundmaker First Nation
Stories
•
One way Elders taught youngsters morals and
values was by telling stories.
•
These stories had two main purposes:
To teach
2. To entertain
1.
Chapter Questions
Values and Viewpoints (pg 7-13)
2. How did each Aboriginal group gain its own culture?
(1)
3.List four core values (world views) shared by all
Aboriginal groups. (4)
4. Who are the most respected members of Aboriginal
communities? (1) Why are they so important to First
Nations communities? (2)
5. What are the two purposes of stories? (2)
Definitions
• oral culture: A way of life in which language,
teachings, and traditional stories are
memorized and passed down orally from one
generation to the next.
Oral and Written Histories
•
Traditionally, young First Nations people learned
about the First Nations’ ways of life and events
that took place in the past by listening.
•
Histories, place names, family trees, laws, and
events were memorized and passed orally from
one generation to the next. It did not need to be
written down.
•
In this way, the First Nations developed a rich oral
culture.
Oral and Written Histories
First Nations peoples had ways of making sure
they remembered everything correctly:
1. One method was to repeat the information often,
so that they would not forget.
2. Another method was to make visual reminders.
•
Wampum belt, 1682
Wampum belt used by the Haudenosaunee. Sea shells were woven
into symbols and designs. A knowledgeable person would look at the
symbols “read” the belt.
Oral and Written Histories
Chapter Task: Wampum Belt
Create a wampum belt for a story that you
believe should be passed down to future
generations.
It can be a story that has been passed down to
you or one of your own that you feel should be
passed to others.
Chapter Task: Wampum Belt
This Chapter Task has two (2) parts:
• Create a wampum belt using graph paper and coloured
pencils. Include symbols, designs and colours that are
meaningful to the story to share during a sharing circle.
• Answer the following question in paragraph form: Why
are stories, pictographs, wampum belts and other
visual reminders important to preserving First Nation
identity?
Definitions
• ethnocentric: A viewpoint that judges other global cultures and
ideas according to personal values and standards; believing
one’s own ethnic group is superior.
• clan: A small village of extended families who lived together, cooperated, and shared resources.
• government: The way people organize themselves to choose
their leaders and make decisions.
• Decision making by consensus: A debate in which people
discuss an issue until they can all agree on one outcome.
• The Three Sisters: Haudenosaunee name for corn, beans, and
squash.
Expert Groups
• Create a Group of 3
• Decide who is going to be A, B and C
Expert Groups
• Create a Group of 3
• Decide who is going to be A, B and C
A – The Mi’kmaq
B – The Haudenosaunee
C – The Anishinabe
Complete “Comparing Aboriginal
Societies Part A” in your Expert
Groups for your assigned society.
The Mi’kmaq
The Mi’kmaq
Core Values/World Views
• Kisulk = the creator
• Humans are equal to nature
The Mi’kmaq
Location
• Eastern
Canada
• NS, PEI, NB
& QUE.
(Gaspé
Peninsula)
The Mi’kmaq
Group Structure
• 7 Districts
• Extended families – “Clans”
– Each clan had a specific territory
The Mi’kmaq
•
•
•
•
Problem Solving/Decision
Making/Government
Consensus – A compromise by all members.
Clans – allowed villages to live in harmony with
one another. Each clan elected a leader Sagamaw.
Districts – land was divided into 7 districts. Each
district had a leader and council to govern.
Sante Mawiomi (Grand Council) settled problems
affecting the whole Mi’kmaq Nation.
The Mi’kmaq
Food
• Hunters, Fishers and Gatherers
The Mi’kmaq
•
•
•
•
•
Role of Women
Raised Children
Took care of the home
Collected and prepared food
Hunted small game
Shared opinions
The Mi’kmaq
•
•
•
•
Nature/Mother Earth
Hunted, Fished and Gathered – Food
supply
Humans are equal to nature. Treat it with
respect.
Wasted nothing.
Seasonal Cycle
The Haudenosaunee
The Haudenosaunee
•
•
•
•
•
Core Values/World Views
Collective thinking. Considering future
generations.
Decision making by Consensus.
Sharing labour and benefits.
Duty to family, clan, nation and Iroquois
Confederacy.
Equality.
The Haudenosaunee
Location
• Northeastern
Woodlands
• Great Lakes
• North and South of
the St. Lawrence
River
The Haudenosaunee
Group Structure
• 6 Nations (Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga,
Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora)
• Family Clans – each with an animal
symbol
The Haudenosaunee
Problem Solving/Decision Making/
Government
• Collective thinking, consensus.
– All must agree, or set aside to discuss later.
• Iroquois Confederacy Alliance formed by “the
Peacemaker” http://www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id=10120
• “Great Law of Peace” – set of laws explaining
how the government should work and how
people should behave in society.
• Men and Women had an equal opinion
The Haudenosaunee
Food
• Hunted and fished; gathered nuts, roots
and berries.
• Farming - 3 sisters: corn, beans
and squash
The Haudenosaunee
•
•
•
•
•
Role of Women
Cared for crops.
Respected for “giving life”.
Matrilineal - woman head of the longhouse (Clan
mother).
Decision Making: male leaders, the location of a
new village, what crops to plant and where,
whether men should go to war, when to make
peace.
They also controlled immigration, played a central
role in ceremonies, helped people and taught
children.
The Haudenosaunee
Nature/Mother Earth
• Responsible for the health of the
environment.
• The Seventh Generation- take care of the
Earth’s resources for future generations.
The Anishinabe
The Anishinabe
Core values/World View
• 7 Values:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Wisdom
Love
Respect
Bravery
Honesty
Humility
Truth
The Anishinabe
Location
• Northern and
Central Ontario.
• Southern
Manitoba.
• Moved West to the
Plains.
The Anishinabe
Group Structure
• Family Clans named
after animals.
– Each clan had a specific
responsibility (pg.25)
The Anishinabe
•
•
•
•
Problem Solving/Decision
Making/Government
Clan system: clans had specific duties. (Crane
and Loon decided on whole community
decisions, Fish settled disputes.)
Worked together to create a balanced
government.
Each village looked after their own affairs.
Short term alliances.
The Anishinabe
Food
• Hunters and Gatherers.
• Wild rice (mamomin)
The Anishinabe
•
•
•
•
Role of Women
Equal to men.
Looked after children and maintained the
lodge.
Hunted small animals.
Harvested, dried and stored food for the
winter.
The Anishinabe
Nature/Mother Earth
• Seasonal cycle surrounding the rice
harvest.
Definitions
• matrilineal: Ancestral decent through the maternal line
(mother).
• Clan Mother: The head of a Haudenosaunee longhouse.
• alliance: A union in which groups agree to trade and help
each other resolve disputes.
• Iroquois Confederacy: An alliance including five
Haudenosaunee nations living south of the Great Lakes: The
Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk; the
Tuscarora later joined the alliance.
• communal: Something done or owned collectively.
Economies and Resources
• An important part of every cultures is the
economy.
• How people meet their basic needs, such as food,
clothing, and shelter.
• There are three main types of First Nations’
economies…
Economies and Resources
How did First Nations communities
get what they needed?
Economies and Resources
• An important part of every cultures is the
economy.
• How people meet their basic needs, such as food,
clothing, and shelter.
• There are three main types of First Nations’
economies…
– Hunter-Gatherer Economies
– Farming Economies
– Trading Networks
Economies and Resources
• The economies of the First Nations were based
on food supply.
• If resources were scarce, people spent most of
their time gathering food.
• If resources were plentiful life was easier. People
had more time to spend on other things, such as
art or recreation.
Hunter-Gatherer Economies
Hunter-Gatherer Economies
• People gathered plants, hunted and fished
according to the seasons.
• Most of the food was eaten fresh, but some of
it was preserved and storied to eat during the
winter.
• People had to have an excellent knowledge of
the land, climate and cycles of nature in order
for this type of economy to work.
Hunter-Gatherer Economies
• They moved their camps as the seasons and
food supply changed.
• They did not gather many extra goods
because they would have to abandon them
each time they moved.
• Although they did some trading, they focused
more on being in rhythm with the seasons
and nature.
Farming Economies
Farming Economies
• Only possible in regions of the country where soil
and weather were ideal for growing crops.
• They did not move as hunter-gatherer societies
did. They stayed in the same village year round,
and moved only when the soil depleted.
• They were able to grow more food than needed,
meaning less time had to be spent on hunting and
gathering.
Farming Economies
• The people had more time for creating art,
performing ceremonies and recreation.
• They were able to produce and store extra
food which could be used for trade with
other First Nations groups.
Trading Networks
Trading Networks
• The First Nations traded goods with one another
long before European traders arrived.
• The people travelled across well-used trade routes
that stretched over long distances.
• All across North America, First Nations traded
with each other to obtain good they did not have.
• When Europeans arrived, they joined these
trading networks.
Economies and Resources
With a partner or by yourself,
complete the “Economies and
Resources” chart in your booklet.
PROS = good things (+)
CONS = bad things (-)
Use pages 26-28 in your textbook to
help you brainstorm.
Economies and Resources Chart
Hunter Gatherer Economies
•
•
•
•
Pros (+)
Life is easy when lots of
resources
More time to spend on
art and recreation
Easy to preserve and
store.
Balanced Diet
Cons (-)
• Time consuming if food is
scarce.
• Great knowledge of land,
climate and cycles of
nature required.
• Had to move with the
seasons.
Economies and Resources Chart
Farming Economies
Pros (+)
• Less time spent Hunting
and Gathering.
• Didn’t have to move.
• Extras goods could be
traded.
Cons (-)
• Only available in regions
with ideal soil and
weather conditions.
• Had to move if the soil
depleted.
• Animals/weather could
destroy crops
Economies and Resources Chart
Trading Economies
Pros (+)
• You could get what you
couldn’t collect or grow.
• Created relationships
with other First Nations
groups and Europeans.
Cons (-)
• Trades weren’t always
fair.
• Were the good
necessarily needed?
• Had to travel long
distances.
TEST REVIEW
Format:
10 Definitions
8 Multiple Choice
2 Short Answer (Listing)
1 Short Answer (sentence)
1 Long Answer (5 pts)
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