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Chapter 9
The Flow of Food
Service
Service
Objectives:
● Holding hot food
● Holding cold food
● Using time as a method of control for food
● Preventing contamination in self-service
areas and when serving food to customers
7-2
Guidelines for Holding Food
Temperature:


7-4
Hold TCS food at the correct temperature
o
Hot food: 135°F(57°C) or higher
o
Cold food: 41°F(5°C) or lower
Check temperatures at least every four
hours
o
Throw out food not at 41°F (5°C) or lower
o
Check temperatures every two hours to leave
time for corrective action
Guidelines for Holding Food
Temperature:

NEVER use hot-holding equipment to reheat
food unless it’s designed for it
o
7-5
Reheat food correctly, and then move it into a
holding unit
Guidelines for Holding Food
Thermometer
•
Use a thermometer to check temperatures
•
Never use the temperature gauge on a holding unit to do it
Guidelines for Holding Food
Time
•
Check food temperature at least every 4 hours
•
Throw out food that is not being held at the correct temperature
•
You can check every 2 hours and take corrective action this will leave
time for corrective action
Guidelines for Holding Food
Reheating food
•
Never use hot-holding equipment to reheat food unless it is built to
do so
•
Reheat food correctly before putting it in hot-hold equipment
Guidelines for Holding Food
Policies
•
Create policies about how long the operation will hold food and when it will
throw it out
Guidelines for Holding Food
Food covers and sneeze guards:

Cover food and install sneeze guards to
protect food from contaminants
o
7-3
Covers protect food from contamination and
help maintain food temperatures
Holding Food Without Temperature Control
Cold food can be held without temperature
control for up to six hours if:


It was held at 41°F (5°C) or lower before
removing it from refrigeration
It does not exceed 70°F (21°C) during service
o

It has a label specifying:
o
o

7-6
Throw out food that exceeds this temperature
Time it was removed from refrigeration
Time it must be thrown out
It is sold, served, or thrown out within six hours
Holding Food Without Temperature Control
Hot food can be held without temperature
control for up to four hours if:
7-7

It was held at 135°F (57°C) or higher before
removing it from temperature control

It has a label specifying when the item must be
thrown out

It is sold, served, or thrown out within four hours
Service Staff Guidelines for Serving Food
Handling dishes and glassware:
Correct
Incorrect
7-10
Service Staff Guidelines
• Hold
dishes by the bottom or edge
• Hold
glasses by the middle, bottom, or stem
• Do
not touch the food-contact areas of dishes or glassware
• Carry
glasses in a rack or on a tray to avoid touching the food-contact
service
• Do
not stack glasses when carrying them
Service Staff Guidelines
• Hold
• Do
flatware by the handle
not hold flatware so that servers grasp food- contact surfaces
• Avoid
• Use
bare-hand contact with food that is ready to eat
ice scoops or tongs to get ice
• Never
break.
scoop ice with your bare hands or a glass. A glass may chip or
Kitchen Staff Guidelines
Prevent contamination when serving food:

Wear single-use gloves whenever handling
ready-to-eat food
o

7-8
As and alternative use spatulas, tongs, deli
sheets, or other utensils
Use clean and sanitized utensils for serving
o
Use separate utensils for each food
o
Clean and sanitize utensils after each task
o
At minimum, clean and sanitize them at least
once every four hours
Kitchen Staff Guidelines for Serving Food
Prevent contamination when serving food:

7-9
Store serving utensils correctly between uses
o
On a clean and sanitized food-contact surface
o
In the food with the handle extended above the
container rim
Preset Tableware
If you preset tableware:

Prevent it from being contaminated
o
Wrap or cover the items
Table settings do not need to be
wrapped or covered if extra settings:
7-13

Are removed when guests are seated

Are cleaned and sanitized after guests
have left
Re-serving Food
NEVER re-serve:

Food returned by one customer to
another customer

Uncovered condiments

Uneaten bread

Plate garnishes
Generally, only unopened, prepackaged
food in good condition can be re-served:
7-14

Condiment packets

Wrapped crackers or breadsticks
Self-Service Areas
Prevent time-temperature abuse and
contamination:


7-15
Use sneeze guards
o
Must be located 14" (36cm) above the
counter
o
Must extend 7" (18cm) beyond
the food
Identify all food items
o
Label food
o
Place salad dressing names on ladle handles
Self-Service Areas
Prevent time-temperature abuse and
contamination:
7-16

Keep hot food at 135°F (57°C) or
higher

Keep cold food at 41°F (5°C) or lower

Keep raw meat, fish, and poultry separate
from ready-to-eat food

Do NOT let customers refill dirty plates or
use dirty utensils at self-service areas
Self-Service Areas
Prevent time-temperature abuse and
contamination:
7-17

Stock food displays with the correct
utensils for dispensing food

Do NOT use ice as an ingredient if it was
used to keep food or beverages cold
Refilling Returnable Take-Home Containers
Some jurisdictions allow food handlers to refill take-home
containers brought back by a customer with food and
beverages. Take-home containers can be refilled if they meet
the following conditions.
•
They were designed to be reused.
•
They were provided to the customer by the operation.
•
They were cleaned and sanitized correctly.
Refilling Returnable Take-Home Containers
Take-home beverage containers can also be refilled as long as the
beverage is not a TCS food and the container will be refilled for
the same customer. The container must also meet the
following conditions.
•
It can be effectively cleaned at home and in the operation.
•
It will be rinsed before refilling with fresh, hot water under
pressure.
•
It will be refilled by staff in the operation or by the customer
using a process that prevents contamination.
Labeling Bulk Food in Self-Service Areas
When labeling bulk food in self-service areas:

Make sure the label is in plain view of the customer

Include the manufacturer or processor label provided
with the food
o
7-18
As an alternative, provide the information using a card,
sign, or other labeling method
Labeling Bulk Food in Self-Service Areas
A label is not needed for bulk unpackaged food, such as
bakery products, if:
7-19

The product makes no claim regarding health or nutrient content

No laws requiring labeling exist

The food is manufactured or prepared on the premises

The food is manufactured or prepared at another regulated food
operation or processing plant owned by the same person
Off-Site Service
When delivering food off-site:
7-20

Use insulated, food-grade containers
designed to stop food from mixing, leaking, or
spilling

Clean the inside of delivery vehicles regularly

Check internal food temperatures

Label food with a use-by date and time, and
reheating and service instructions
Off-Site Service
When delivering food off-site:


7-21
Make sure the service site has the
correct utilities
o
Safe water for cooking, dishwashing,
and handwashing
o
Garbage containers stored away from
food-prep, storage, and serving areas
Store raw meat, poultry, and seafood, and
ready-to-eat items separately
Catering
Follow these guidelines to keep food safe:
•
Make sure the site has correct utilities, safe water for handwashing
•
Appropriate garbage containers
•
Use insulated containers for TCS food
•
Serve and hold cold food at appropriate temperatures
•
Store ready-to-eat food separately
•
Give instructions for how to handle leftovers
Temporary Unit Guidelines
•
Units should be constructed to keep dirt and pests out.
•
Safe-handling rules should be applied
•
Safe drinking water needs to be available for cleaning, sanitizing, and
handwashing.
•
It is best to use disposable, single use items
Vending Machines
To keep vended food safe:

Check product shelf life daily
o
7-22
Refrigerated food prepped on-site and not
sold in seven days must be thrown out

Keep TCS food at the correct temperature

Dispense TCS food in its original container

Wash and wrap fresh fruit with edible peels
before putting it in the machine
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