File - Hinzman`s AP World History & Honors World History

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ASIA 600-1450
Unit 3 Section 3
CHINA
• After a 300 year period of disunity following the collapse of the Han dynasty in
220 CE, the Sui family reunited China in a short 40 years
– The Sui dynasty was short-lived, but it set the stage for China’s growth into
a powerful society that dominated Asia up through the 20 th Century and
affect the evolving cultures of Korea, Japan, & Vietnam
• The Sui laid the groundwork for many of the practices of the Tang Empire, which would
come to power in 618,
– Under the Sui, Confucianism was reestablished as the philosophy of the state,
and the examination system was revived.
• By the time of the Sui, Mahayana Buddhism had grown to be very influential in China &
would be a defining characteristic of the Tang dynasty.
– The Sui placed their capital in Chang’an & built several canals to link the
capital to the coast of Southern China
• The most important, the Grand Canal, linked the Yellow & Yangzi Rivers and
would be a key part of the Tang’s economic success
The Tang Empire 618-907
• The Li family, whose roots were both Turkish & Chinese,
established the Tang Empire in 618
– The Tang established a large empire, giving a great deal of
power to local nobility in order to ensure control
– They expanded westward into Central Asia until Muslim
Arabs &Turks stopped their advance
– The Tang had ethnic ties to areas of Central Asia where
Buddhism had proved politically useful, and as they extended
their empire into areas where Buddhism was popular among
people of all classes, they continued to use it as a political tool
• For this reason Tang princes rewarded Buddhist monasteries that
supported their rule with monetary gifts, tax exemptions, and land
grants
– The Tang also reinstituted the tributary system, first used by
the Han dynasty, by which independent states gave gifts to
the Chinese emperor
• Both Japan & Korea paid tribute to the Tang and in doing so
acknowledged China’s regional power
The Tang Empire 618-907
• The Tang Empire quickly attracted people from all over Asia
who flocked especial to the Tang capital at Chang’an, a
trading center, where they could be found worshiping as
Muslims, Christians, and Buddhists
– With more than 1 million people in the city and its suburbs,
Chang’an was a center for cultural exchange in the arts, textiles,
& music
– This cultural exchange was possible in part because the Tang,
with control of the coast of southern China, participated in Indian
Ocean trade
• Chinese maritime technology included the compass & the
ability to make oceangoing vessels that could transport all
kinds of good up through the Grand Canal
• The Chinese also began to master new kinds of skills such
as cotton production, & increasing competition with the
textile industry in western Asia spurred them to increase
their expertise in silk production
The Tang Empire 618-907
• In the 8th Century, the power of the Tang began to
be threatened by rival states, including the Uighur
& Tibetan Empires
– These external threats, combined with internal rebellion
and overexpansion, signaled the decline and eventual
destruction of the Tang Empire
– Buddhism, because it had come to China from India,
became a scapegoat for many of the problems the Tang
faced
• Buddhist monasteries were accused of being a foreign evil that
drained money from the state because they were tax-exempt
• They were also blamed for causing the breakdown of the
family because elite sons & daughters were entering
monasteries rather then getting married & producing heirs
The Song Empire 960-1279
• After the fall of the Tang dynasty, 3 smaller empires
controlled territory in China
– The Song Empire, based in central China, had a large army
but never grew as large as the Tang, primarily because of the
strength of the rival Tanggut & Liao Empires in northern
China
– These 3 empires had different religious & ethnic identities
and competed for resources
• The Song fought against these “Barbarians” in the north
& focused on advancing their maritime expertise in order
to build relationships with other states by sea
• The Jin, who defeated the Liao in 1115, captured the Song
emperor 2 years later in the capital city of Kaifeng and
forced the song south of the Yellow River, where they
established a new capital at Hangzhou
– From this point on, historians refer to the Song Empire as the
Southern Song
The Song Empire 960-1279
• Although never as large as the Tang, the Song
made outstanding scientific & technological
contributions by building on the mathematical
and engineering skills that had come to the farflung Tang Empire
– Example: they used their knowledge of astronomy to
build a mechanical celestial clock and to improve the
compass and the junk – the main Chinese seafaring
ship
• The junk navigated the oceans with ease and had special
features such as watertight compartments that allowed it to
preserve all kinds of goods
– Military technologies were also essential because the Song military
commanded more than 1 million men
– Improvements in iron & steel production and
experiments with gunpowder produced innovative and
effective weapons.
The Song Empire 960-1279
• The song also had many economic
accomplishments:
– Paper money, possible thanks to printing techniques
such as movable type, was a tremendous technological
contribution that would spread across Asia, into Europe
& beyond
• Printing also allowed for the dissemination of agricultural
techniques, educational resources, and public-health materials
in cities and villages across China
– Improving production and health conditions in areas by combating
malaria and the plague
• Another economic tool was credit, which could be
used across the region
The Song Empire 960-1279
• Although the religious influence of Buddhism
remained strong, Confucianism reemerged as
the philosophical & ethical basis for Song
society
• Neo-Confucianism – Confucian ideas that
emerged in the Song period & thereafter –
reflected Buddhist influence and incorporated
new understandings of Confucian teachings
– Mastery of the Confucian classics was required
under the scholar examination system, and meritbased appointments gave new prominence to the role
of the scholar-official in Chinese society
Role of Women
• Confucianism’s patriarchal tradition, coupled with the
backlash against Buddhism dating form the end of the
Tang period, meant that expectations for women were
closely regulated in China and subsequently in all East
Asian states
In China, women:
–
–
–
–
Did not have property rights
Inability to remarry (very rarely occurred)
Rarely had educational opportunities comparable to men
Footbinding, a practice unique to China, came to embody the
restrictions on women in Song China
•
•
•
•
Their feet were tightly wrapped and subsequently broken
When healed in a way to make the feet appear smaller
Made the woman unable to work
Footbinding became a status symbol among the elite in China
(wealthy = women could be objects and not productive “trophy”)
FOOTBINDING
The Mongols
• What made the Mongols able to conquer Eurasia
relatively quickly?
– Much of their success was a result of the military
techniques these steppe nomads had practiced for
centuries
• Mongol expertise in horsemanship and the use of the central
Asian bow, which could shoot 1/3 farther than the bows of
their enemies, made them nearly unstoppable
– The only true military rivals to the Mongols were the
Mamluks, who shared many of the same cultural
traditions and were therefore familiar with Mongol
weaponry and tactics
– The Mongols also adapted the iron weaponry and
tactics they encountered in China, and they absorbed
many captured peoples into their army, including
Iranians, Turks, Chinese and even Europeans
The Mongols
• From 1240 to 1260 the capital of the Mongol
Empire was Karakorum, a flourishing city that
attracted merchants, missionaries, and scholars
from all over Eurasia.
• During this period, the Great Khan remained in
Mongolia and ruled over the khanate of the Golden
Horde in Russia, the Jagadai khanate in Central
Asia, and the Il-Khan in Iran
– After 1265, the Jagadai khanate continued to control
Central Asia and developed and thrived independently
from the domain of the Great Khan in the East
• Both Turkish nomads and Muslims had a
tremendous influence on developments in the
Central Asian khanate
The Golden Horde
• The Golden Horde, established under
Genghis’ grandson Batu in 1223, began
as a unified khanate but broke apart into
smaller khanates, the longest-lasting one
surviving up until the 18th Century
– The Mongols ruled Russia from a distance
– Their capital was just north of the Caspian Sea
– This allowed Russia to avoid direct
subjugation and kept Russia’s principalities
in place
• Much of the credit for this was due to Prince
Alexander Nevskii who convinced his peers that their
best strategy was to cooperate with the Mongols
• In appreciation for his help, the Mongols favored
Nevskii’s territory of Novgorod
• Moscow the town his son ruled, eventually became
the most important political hub in Russia
The Golden Horde
• The Mongols also recognized and patronized the
Orthodox Church, a shrewd political move to win
the hearts of the Russian people
– Islam was also very influential and became a source
of tension among the Mongols of the Golden Horde
• Batu’s successor declared himself a Muslim, which sparked
conflict between Golden Horde leaders and those of the Ilkhan that culminated in war in 1260
• In 1295, the Il-khan leader declared himself a Muslim,
which shifted alliances again
The Golden Horde
• In securing & controlling Eurasia, the Mongols allowed
missionaries, merchants and diplomats to move freely and
exchange ideas and goods
• However, the Mongols also unknowingly spread disease, in
particular the bubonic plague
– It began in China under the Tang dynasty
– As Mongol Troops moved from their stations in China, rats in their
cargo spread the disease across Central Asia into Russia and port
cities like Kaffa on the Black Sea, and from there eventually to
western Europe
• In addition, influenza, typhus, and smallpox were spread
– The death and devastation caused by the plague is one of the greatest
legacies of the Mongols
– Peaceful trade allowed for an unforeseeable pandemic
• The Mongols brought demographic change in other ways as well
– The heavy burden they placed on western Eurasia in terms of taxes
and resources led to population loss, drained the local economy, and
destroyed rural areas
Jagadai Khanate
• As the Il-Khan khanate was declining in the
Middle East, new leadership rose in the Jagadai
Khanate under Timur (also known as Tamerlane
in the West – ruled from 1370-1405)
– Although he was an ambitious military leader, Timur
could never be khan because he was not born a Mongol –
he was a Turk who had married into the Mongol
dynasty
– This did not stop him from having incredible success in
attacking the Delhi Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire
& bringing the Middle East under his control
– He then set his sights on East Asia but died before he
could attack China
– Timur’s legacy lived on through his decedents, the
Timurids, in the Mughal Empire of the 16th Century
Timur & Contributions
• Placed strategically between Iran and China, the
ends of the Silk Road, Timur’s capital at
Samarkand, became a key trading point on the
Silk Road
• Timur also patronized great scholars, painters,
and historians, helping to preserve and build on
the significant contributions of the Muslim world
– Astronomy was another field that flourished during
this time
• Timur’s own grandson build an observatory in Samarkand
and studied astronomy with great precision and dedication
YUAN EMPIRE
• The death of Ögödei caused conflict over who
would be the next Great Khan
– When Genghis’ grandson Khubilai Khan took
the title of the Great Khan in 1265, Jagadai’s
descendents refused to recognize Khubilai as the
supreme leader
– The fighting that ensued destroyed Karakorum,
and as result, Khubilai began to rule from
Beijing, where he created an incredible city that
was linked to the Grand Canal
– In 1271, he crated the Yuan Empire in China, the
new domain of the Great Khan
YUAN EMPIRE
• One of Khubilai’s greatest contributions to Chinese
regional identity was his ability to unify the areas after
the Song’s fragmentation
– He destroyed the Tanggut and Jin Empires in northern
China & conquered the Southern Song dynasty in 1279,
thereby laying out the territory of modern China
– Eager to establish himself as a the rightful ruler of China, he
worked to bring together Mongol and Chinese traditions
– To that end, Khubilai adopted many of the successful
political and cultural practices of the previous dynastieswith a few exceptions:
• He did away with the scholar examination system & placed Mongols
in the highest positions of authority in his court
• Chinese scholar officials kept their positions but were subordinate to
the Mongols
• The Confucians were at odds with many of the practices of the Yuan
Empire, including the rising status of merchants, whom Confucians
did not respect
YUAN EMPIRE
• Mongol control of the entire Eurasian
landmass revitalized the Silk road
– The Yuan Empire stood at one end and Il-khan at
the other, which allowed for Pax Mongolica, or the
Mongol peace
– The flow of ideas, religion, technological
innovations, and resources brought tremendous
wealth and grandeur to the Yuan Empire
• Khubilai financed the building of canals and
roads to bring the tribute and wealth right to
his glorious palace in Beijing
Silk Road Map
YUAN EMPIRE
• Because Khubilai valued this exchange so
much, he welcomed to his court important men
from all parts of the world, including Marco
Polo
– Polo was a Venetian merchant whose record of his
alleged years at the court of Khubilai has given
tremendous insight into life in the Yuan dynasty
– Muslims furthered astronomical studies, brought
new medicinal practices, and left their imprint on
language – Mandarin Chinese, a dominant
language in China today, has many Mongolian
influences that date back to this time
YUAN EMPIRE
• The Mongols significantly affected Chinese
demographics
– For various reasons the population under the Mongols
declined significantly perhaps up to 40%:
•
•
•
•
Warfare
Flooding
Migration
Bubonic plague
• By the 1340s, feuding among Mongol princes led to
mass rebellion and the eventual rise of a new empire that
focused on reestablishing Chinese traditions
• The Mongols did not disappear
– Some were absorbed into Chinese society and others returned
to the Mongol homeland
– The Ming would never rule over all the Mongols, who
continued to be a serious concern on the northern edge of the
Ming Empire
Ming Empire
• In response to the foreign threat represented by the Mongol’s
Yuan dynasty, a priority of the first Ming emperor,
Hongwu, was to reassert Chinese authority & indigenous
cultural practices
– He moved the capital from Beijing to Nanjing, on the Yangzi
river, and reinstituted the Confucian examination system
– The Ming also made many social and economic changes to reflect
their desire to take back control form the Mongols
– Communication with the rest of Central Asia and the Middle East
was scaled back tremendously, and silver replaced paper money as
the main currency
– Growing staple crops became more important than growing
commercial crops because of the large population increase under
the Ming
– They also completed the Great Wall, which stood as a tangible
symbol of imperial desire to keep foreigners out
• Despite these efforts, many of the influences of the Mongols
remained, including the Mongol calendar
Ming Empire
• The 2nd Ming emperor, Yongle, was quite different from
Hongwu
– He increased ties to the previous empire by moving the capital back
to Beijing and added onto Khubilai’s royal complex, the Forbidden
City
– Yongle also reopened trade with the Indian Ocean trade network &
reestablished economic relations with the Middle East
– To avoid conflicts with the remaining Mongol presence in Central
Asia, he sent the eunuch naval admiral Zheng He on maritime
voyages to Indian Ocean ports
• In the course of 7 expeditions between 1405-1433, Zheng He established
trading, mercantile, and diplomatic relationships & added 50 new
tribute states to China’s realm
• During this time, Ming cultural achievements blossomed in
the areas of literature & painting, and Ming porcelain,
known as Ming ware, became the most famous Chinese
product throughout Eurasia
• The Ming Empire would endure until the mid-17th Century
Zheng He
Korea
• The 1st written records of Korean history come from
Chinese sources, which make clear that the Chinese
heavily influenced Korea, but that Korea also
maintained its own identity
• Both Confucianism & Buddhism had a
tremendous impact on Korean culture, but political
roles were not determined by a civil service
examination system as in China
– Instead, Korea’s landed aristocracy created ruling
families who were in power for centuries, & wealth was
based on agriculture
– One of these families, the Silla, conquered the Korean
peninsula with the support of the Tang
Korea
• The Silla fell in the 10th Century, and the Koryo
family, from which the name Korea derives, took over
– Like the Southern Song in China, the Koryo also feared
the Liao and Jin Empires, and they established a
diplomatic relationship with the Song in light of this
threat
• The Koryo also had a tense relationship with the
Mongols that climaxed when the Mongols attacked
in 1231
– In 1258, the same year that they sacked Baghdad, the
Mongols finally defeated the Koryo and brought Korea
under their control
– The Mongols demanded economic tribute from the
Koreans, and the Koryo family married into the Mongols,
which resulted in further exposure to the Yuan culture
Korea
• After the Yuan fell, the Yi family rose to
power and established a new kingdom
focused on reasserting Korean identity
– The Yi remained in power until the Japanese
takeover in 1910
– Part of their ability to remain independent as a
tributary state to the Qing Empire was their
strong naval power – gunpowder technology
taken from the Chinese allowed them to mount
canons on ships
Korea
• One of the greatest contributions of the
Koreans was in printing
– Although the earliest woodblock print dates back
to Han China & moveable type was in place in
Korea by the 1300s, it was the invention of
metal movable type by the Koreans in the 1400s
that allowed for increased accuracy and
readability
JAPAN
• The 1st written records of Japan, like those of Korea, came from
the Chinese
– Many Chinese influences reached Japan through Korea, among
them Confucianism & Buddhism
– Indeed, Japan became a center for Mahayana Buddhism in the 8 th
Century
• Like Korea, Japan adopted some practices from China but had
some key differences in political organization
– There was no concept of a Mandate of Heaven in Japan – Instead
emperors descended from one continuous lineage
• The Fujiwara family assumed protection of the emperor & was
in power from 794-1185, although a civil war plagued the last
30 years
• The Kamakura family took power in 1185 & established a
shogunate that controlled Japan through the military
• Japan became a decentralized feudal state that recognized the
emperor and shogun but was not unified
JAPAN
• It was the threat of a Mongol invasion that unified
feuding Japanese lords and helped create a national
identity out of a politically decentralized environment
– Every effort went into protecting Japan’s economic resources &
preparing for attack
– Japan’s ability to resist a Mongol invasion twice was partly
because of the weather
– Both times storms undermined the Mongols’ attempts
– This fact helped cement the view that Japan was a unique state
among her East Asian neighbors
• Defending Japan successfully strengthened the power of
the warrior elite, or samurai, who developed a culture
centered on Zen Buddhism during the period of the
Ashikaga Shogunate, established in 1338
•
VIETNAM
During the period 600-1450, Vietnam was divided into 2 rival
kingdoms:
– Annam in the north
• Environment similar to that of southern China & agriculturally based like its
neighbors of East Asia
• Culturally, politically & economically tied to China beginning in the Tang period
– Champa in the south
• It was a part of the Indian Ocean trade network
• Heavily influenced by India & Malaysa
• Both Annam & Champa were tributary states of the Song, and Champa
made a significant tribute gift of Champa rice, which grows fast and
allowed Chinese farmers in the song period to produce more of this staple
crop
• When the Mongols came, they made both Annam & Champa tribute
states
– This continued under the Ming (who occupied Annam for a time)
– Annam regained tribute status, then took Champa – uniting the 2
kingdoms into one state named Annam by 1500
• Annam continued to have Confucian political structures, including the
examination system, but women retained property rights
South Asia
• Since the decline of the Gupta Empire, India was
divided into separate states that often fought one
another
• In the 12th Century, Turkish invaders from
Central Asia poured into northern India and
established the Delhi Sultanate
– From 1206-1526, this Muslim empire ruled almost the
entire subcontinent of India except the south, which
Hindu princes held, and did much to centralize India
under a strict government bureaucracy
– The Turks destroyed temples and massacred
thousands
South Asia
• Once the initial conquest was over, the Delhi sultanate
required Hindus to pay a special tax in exchange for
protection
– This created an ongoing tension between Hindus &
Muslims that would ultimately weaken the Delhi
Sultanate significantly – in fact, this tension between
Hindus & Muslims still goes on today and causes much of
the conflict in this region
– The sultanate received a fatal blow in 1398 when Timur
sacked & captured Delhi, a defeat that signaled the end of
the prominence of Delhi
– Despite its difficulty in controlling all of India, the Delhi
Sultanate profited tremendously from the Indian Ocean
trade network because it held many of the key port cities
and regions along the trade routes
Indian Ocean Trade Network
• The key to Indian Ocean trade was mastering the
monsoon winds and navigating their currents
– The typical ship of the Indian Ocean was the dhow, a
boat fitted with a lateen sail – a triangular sail that
caught the winds of the ocean beautifully
– The Chinese junk became known in the Indian Ocean as
the best vessel for travel and large transport
• The Indian Ocean trade network grew to be the
richest trade network during the period 600-1450 &
it was at its height from 1200-1500
– So precious was this trade network that gaining control
of it would become the quest of European explorers like
Christopher Columbus by the end of the period
Indian Ocean Trade Network
• The complex trading patterns of the Indian Ocean were
not controlled by one central political authority but
worked through a series of smaller economic relationships
– Gold from Africa flowed through the East African citystates.
– Goods from the Mediterranean, the Middle East and Europe
were transported across the Arabian peninsula
• Port cities like Malacca stood as a gateway between
Southeast Asia, China, and the Indian Ocean
– Islam was the dominant religion of the network and
facilitated trading relationships between peoples of all
languages and ethnicities who shared this faith, among
them
– ibn Battuta, a Moroccan Muslim, who chronicled his
extensive travels to many of the prominent locations along
the Indian Ocean trade route and recorded that Islam spread
to each port along the trade route and then beyond
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