Henry Clay's American System Second National Bank voted by Congress in 1816. Dependence on Europe’s economy and politics have now decreased significantly. Tariff of 1816 Purpose? First protective tariff in U.S. History Started a protective trend in U.S. trade Calhoun vs. Webster vs. Clay Internal Improvements Bonus Bill Jeffersonians opposed direct federal support of intrastate internal improvements; saw it as a states’ rights issue Prior to Civil War, most internal improvements (except railroads) were done at the expense of state and local governments Era of Good Feelings James Monroe elected President Continued VA Dynasty Carried out most of the ideals Jefferson established. (Hamilton’s financial plan, expansion, loose construction in certain cases) Era of Good Feelings Emerging sectionalism (east, west and south) Tariff issue (east and south opposed; west in favor) Internal improvements (east and south opposed; west in favor) Bank of U.S. (BUS) (west and south opposed; eastern bankers in favor) Sale of public lands (east opposed; west and south in favor) Panic of 1819 resulted in western hostility toward eastern bankers. Issue of slavery in Missouri created increased sectionalism (north vs. south) Republican party enjoying 1-party rule began developing factions eventually leading to the 2nd Party System in the 1830s. Panic of 1819 Economic panic and depression Causes Results Monroe reelected in 1820 with all but one electoral vote… Only president in history to be elected after a major panic. The Growing West New states' characteristics Maintaining a sectional balance in Congress was a supreme goal. Reasons for westward expansion Western Population and influence Missouri Compromise Missouri asked Congress to enter the union in 1819 Tallmadge Amendment- The Senate refused to pass the amendment and a crisis hung over the nation. Provisions Balance of Free and Slave states Missouri Compromise John Marshall His decisions greatly increased power of the federal government over the states. Fletcher v. Peck (1810) McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) Gibbons v. Ogden -- 1824 McCulloch v. Maryland • • • • 1819 Second National Bank of the United States decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a government agency Denied the state the power to tax that agency. Upheld the power of the federal government over that of the states as well Gibbons vs. Ogden • • • • 1824 NY tried to grant a monopoly of river commerce btwn NY/NJ to a private company. This case ruled that only the federal government has authority over interstate commerce. No state monopolies! Foreign Policy after the War of 1812 Rush-Bagot Treaty Treaty of 1818 U.S. gains Spanish Florida-Jackson and First Seminole war Monroe Doctrine Rush Bagot Treaty 1817 Madison still in office Significantly limited naval armament on the Great Lakes Treaty of 1818 Made with Britain John Quincy Adams Secretary of State American Canadian Border, Oregon Territory Acquisition of Florida First Seminole War (1816-1818) Andrew Jackson sweeps through Florida and captures Spanish cities. (Disobeyed direct orders from Monroe) John Q. Adams and Monroe Ultimatum Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 Monroe Doctrine Written by J.Q.A. Leave America Alone! U.S. would regard attempts at European control in the Americas as a personal threat. Europe should no longer colonize the American continents. U.S. would not interfere in European affairs. Impacts of the Monroe Doctrine Immediate impact of Monroe Doctrine was small Long Term Impact: Monroe doctrine became cornerstone of US foreign policy during the last half of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century. J.Q.A. becomes the most significant secretary of state.