Henry Clay's American System
Second National Bank voted by
Congress in 1816.
 Dependence on Europe’s economy and
politics have now decreased
Tariff of 1816
 First protective tariff in U.S. History
 Started a protective trend in U.S. trade
 Calhoun vs. Webster vs. Clay
Internal Improvements
Bonus Bill
 Jeffersonians opposed direct federal
support of intrastate internal
improvements; saw it as a states’ rights
 Prior to Civil War, most internal
improvements (except railroads) were
done at the expense of state and local
Era of Good Feelings
James Monroe
elected President
Continued VA
Carried out most of
the ideals Jefferson
(Hamilton’s financial
plan, expansion,
loose construction in
certain cases)
Era of Good Feelings
Emerging sectionalism
(east, west and south)
Tariff issue (east and south
opposed; west in favor)
Internal improvements
(east and south opposed;
west in favor)
Bank of U.S. (BUS) (west
and south opposed;
eastern bankers in favor)
Sale of public lands (east
opposed; west and south
in favor)
Panic of 1819 resulted in
western hostility toward
eastern bankers.
Issue of slavery in Missouri
created increased
sectionalism (north vs.
Republican party enjoying
1-party rule began
developing factions
eventually leading to the
2nd Party System in the
Panic of 1819
Economic panic and depression
 Causes
 Results
 Monroe reelected in 1820 with all but
one electoral vote… Only president in
history to be elected after a major panic.
The Growing West
New states' characteristics
 Maintaining a sectional balance in
Congress was a supreme goal.
 Reasons for westward expansion
 Western Population and influence
Missouri Compromise
Missouri asked Congress to enter the
union in 1819
 Tallmadge Amendment- The Senate
refused to pass the amendment and a
crisis hung over the nation.
 Provisions
 Balance of Free and Slave states
Missouri Compromise
John Marshall
His decisions greatly increased power of
the federal government over the states.
 Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
 McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
 Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
 Gibbons v. Ogden -- 1824
McCulloch v. Maryland
Second National Bank of the United
States decision upheld the power of
Congress to charter a bank as a
government agency
Denied the state the power to tax that
Upheld the power of the federal
government over that of the states as
Gibbons vs. Ogden
NY tried to grant a monopoly of river
commerce btwn NY/NJ to a private
This case ruled that only the federal
government has authority over interstate
No state monopolies!
Foreign Policy after the War of
Rush-Bagot Treaty
 Treaty of 1818
 U.S. gains Spanish Florida-Jackson and
First Seminole war
 Monroe Doctrine
Rush Bagot Treaty
 Madison still in office
 Significantly limited naval armament on
the Great Lakes
Treaty of 1818
Made with Britain
 John Quincy Adams
 Secretary of State
 American Canadian Border, Oregon
Acquisition of Florida
First Seminole War (1816-1818)
 Andrew Jackson sweeps through Florida
and captures Spanish cities. (Disobeyed
direct orders from Monroe)
 John Q. Adams and Monroe Ultimatum
 Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819
Monroe Doctrine
Written by J.Q.A.
Leave America Alone!
U.S. would regard attempts at European
control in the Americas as a personal threat.
Europe should no longer colonize the
American continents.
U.S. would not interfere in European affairs.
Impacts of the Monroe Doctrine
Immediate impact of Monroe Doctrine
was small
 Long Term Impact: Monroe doctrine
became cornerstone of US foreign
policy during the last half of the 19th
century and throughout the 20th century.
 J.Q.A. becomes the most significant
secretary of state.