Germany 1815

advertisement
GERMANY 1815- 1862
The Unification of Germany
Europe 1815
Key Questions

What was Germany like before 1815?

How was Germany affected by the Vienna settlement?



What was the impact of Nationalism on the Germanic
states?
What was the significance of the Zollverein?
What accounts for the rise of Prussian economic and military
power?
Germany before 1815




German speaking language- no corresponding territory
to call “Germany”- most German speaking people
were part of the Holy Roman Empire
Ancient Empire- ruled by the Hapsburgs
A collection of lands whose rulers owed allegiance to
the Holy Roman Emperors (who were Austrian)
A bewildering variety of tiny states ruled by
margraves, dukes, princes, electors, etc…
Germany before 1815

Most significant state within the empire was
Brandenburg-Prussia (north east)- ruled by the
Hohenzollerns (Prussians)

Saxony

Bavaria

Baden

Wurttemberg
Germany before 1815

1792- 250 states linked by language and membership of the HRE

The HRE did not ‘rule’ in any temporal sense




The people of the Germanic lands owed allegiance to their rulers- fierce loyaltytherefore localist and not nationalist
Some German state ruled over non-Germans- Prussia and Poles, Austria ruled many
No religious uniformity due to the reformation (1517)- split between Catholics and
Protestants (Peace of Augsburg 1555)
Most Germans were involved in agriculture and small industries- one big city
(Vienna) and one major port (Hamburg)
Italy vs. Germany

Discuss whether it seemed more likely in 1815 that
Germany or Italy would seek unification?
Leading Powers




Prussia- included small
territories separated from
each other
Brandenburg- Hohenzollerns
(electors of Prussia)
Upper class supportersJunkers (jung+Herr= young
lord)
Junkers ruled over their lands
and peasants but gave
service to the state
“Iron and Rye”
Prussia



Held their own courts on their lands, influential in the
military and civil service
Sign of a junker was the use of “von” in their namesOtto von Bismarck- Schonhausen
Effective administration- Frederick II (The Great),
large powerful army (Napoleon’s tactics were
developed with Frederick’s in mind)
Prussia



Eastern provinces- economically poor, poor soil in
Brandenburg, the estates in the east had no modern
farming techniques
18th century Prussian tradition/culture- service to the
state, hard work, religious devotion, respect for the
army and the monarch
“Parade ground of Europe”
Austria
Austria




Most influential empire in continental Europe (18151848)
1.5 million Czechs, 3.3. million Magyars, Slovaks,
Croats, Italians, Poles, Romanians, Ruthenes, Serbs,
Slovenes and Belgians
Official language and culture- German
Technically ruled all of Germany (not Prussia) through
the HRE
History and Hindsight…too much?
Source A:
The century towards which the Hapsburgs were
moving was to see the gradual triumphs of two
concepts: democracy and nationalism. Each was in
itself a threat to the survival of the dynasty. When
the two joined hands, any hope of stability…was
doomed.

Brook Shepherd, G. 1997. The Austrians. London, UK. HarperCollins. P. 30
The Impact of Napoleon



Prussia was concerned about the risk of the French
Revolution to its monarchy, therefore joins Austria
Napoleon conquered much of German speaking
central Europe- Prussia and Austria remained
independent
1806 HRE was abolished- Confederation of the
Rhine took its place
The Impact of Napoleon



Larger states were allowed to take over smaller ones
Napoleonic rule produced major changes to German
lands- no more HRE, introduction of small church states
and free cities and the consolidation of many small
states- 19th century Germany would be less complex
In response to French rule- patriotic resistance
emerged- see “The German Fatherland”
Prussian Reforms







1807 serfdom abolished
Nobles were allowed to trade
Rich, non-nobles could acquire land
Military liberalism- promotion by merit
Conscription (Landwehr 1814)
Parliamentary government- dominated by nobles
These changes brought greater unity and simplified
laws and justice
HOW WAS GERMANY AFFECTED
BY THE VIENNA SETTLEMENT?
Germany 1815- 1862
Congress of Vienna



Priority- protect Europe against France and
maintain old monarchies
Changes in German lands meant there was no way
to restore the hundreds of small states- 39 new
states emerged
Confederation of 39 states headed by princes and
kings oversaw by Austria called the Bund
(confederation/league)
Vienna terms on German Lands


Bund assembly called the Diet- 17 members- Austria was a
permanent member- representatives spoke on behalf of
their states not as a ‘nation’
Prussia gain land west of the German states on both sides
of the Rhine- barrier to French expansion

The Rhineland was full of coal and iron ore

Prussia lost land in Poland

The Bund would crush any form of German nationalism
FORCES FOR CHANGE AFTER 1815
LIBERALISM AND NATIONALISM
Germany 1815- 1862
Economic Growth

Source A: Wells, Mike. Unification of Italy and
Germany. 2013. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge
University Press. P. 115
“It (Germany) had a rising population with more
people living in cities. Its growing middle class was
well educated…Economic growth was transforming
central Germany as a whole and Prussia in particular.
All these developments indicate that future changes to
the Vienna settlement were likely. “
Economic Growth



Cities grew, populations grew, new industrial
techniques, modern farming methods and new
transportation methods (train, canal)
Regions experiencing rapid growth- best resources:
metal ore, coal, power, markets and technical
knowledge
Germany- Prussia was able to grow due to this
however Austria remained agricultural and static
Forces Opposing Change in 1815

German confederation- ruled by Kings and Princes who favored their own interests

Austria and Russia

Conservative, traditional peasantry and small town merchants

Local traditions- religion, distrust of bigger states by smaller

Linguistic and cultural gap between north and south


National unity associated with French rule (resentment of conscription and other
Napoleonic measures
Grossdeutschland and Kleindeutschland
WHAT WAS THE IMPORTANCE OF
THE GROWTH OF NATIONALISM?
Germany 1815- 1862
Nationalism

-




3 different forms:
Official organizations and supporters of greater unity
Cultural elements that brought Germany closer together
Economic factors that encouraged unification
Gymnastics Clubs (1811)
Address to the German Nation (1807- 1808)
The Spirit of the Age (1806)
Anti-Semitism elements- many of the literary nationalists
were appalled by revolutionary ideas from France
Student Nationalism

Most enthusiastic supporters were students- liberal and
nationalist ideas- based on leading university towns

1817 Wartburg (Festival) Castle

Saxe-Weimar- ruled by a constitutional ruler

1819 Karl Sand assassinated August von Kotzebue
(playwright- attacked nationalists and was supported
by Russia))
Student Nationalism





This was not widespread nationalism- more student
activism…however…
Metternich convinced the Bund to pass the Carlsbad Decrees (see
handout)
“a word spoken by Austria is an unbreakable law for Germany”
Very successful laws- The Prussians in particular enjoyed this power
over its citizens
Then came the rebellions of the 1830s
Student Nationalism




1830 revolution in France- triggered disturbances in Poland, Italy
and Germany- constitutional demands, peasant unrest and worker
discontent
1832 25,000 nationalists marched to the castle of Handbach
(Bavaria)- King of Bavaria sent in the army- caused fear throughout
Germany
Six articles and Ten Acts passed by Austria- supreme suppression of
nationalist thoughts- even banned the ‘national flag’
The 39 states were expected to co-operate in the repression of
national unrest
Subterranean Nationalism





After 1832 all nationalist activity took place secretly/private meetings
Disguised as Gymnastics Clubs or Musical Societies- 1847 85,000 members
of Gymnastics clubs
100,000 singing club members- patriotic songs- historical festivals- Arminius
(Mythical leader of the German tribes that defeated the Romans)
Regardless it wasn’t until 1859 that a nationalist association
(Nationalverein) existed (no leading figure like Mazzini)
Therefore nationalism took on the form of patriotic sentiment rather than a
movement for nation building
Cultural Nationalism



More important than nationalist expression- cultural
appreciation of a Germanic type
Greater awareness of “GERMAN” culture among
the middle class- independent craftsmen, academics
and businessmen
The peasants…didn’t flock to opera so its likely
they didn’t experience any of this patriotic
sentiment- no time to go on nationalist walking tours
German Renaissance






Rediscovery of German folklore- Brothers Grimm
Literary romanticism of Goethe and Schiller
German music developed a contrasting style to
Italian Opera- Wagner (old Germanic legends for
inspiration)
Beethoven
German history became the standard- Von Ranke
Caspar David Friedrich
WHAT WAS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF
THE ZOLLVEREIN
Germany 1815- 1862
Zollverien



1818 Prussian tariff reform law- all raw materials were
free from tariffs and within Prussian territories, all
internal customs and duties were abolished (liberal)
Free trade within the largest state in Germanytherefore other neighboring states wished to join to
trade freely with Prussia
Formal agreement in 1834- 17 states and 26 million
people- Austria was never a member
Zollverein






Assembly of members called the Zoll parliament
Unanimous consent for changes
Uniform tariff on all imported goods
Proceeds were divided between the states
according to size and population
Raw materials and semi-manufactured good
entered the union tax free
Make it rain!!!!!
Zollverein


1831 Holland
1844 Britain and Belgium
1840 report for the British Government:
“the general feeling in Germany is that it is the first step towards the
Germanisation of the people”




Almost every German state joined (minus Austria)
Initiative came from Prussia, which suggested that they were the
natural leader of the German states
The Zollverein acted as a union- assembly
WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE RISE OF
PRUSSIAN ECONOMIC AND MILITARY
POWER?
Germany 1815- 1862
Prussia


1815 acquisition of the Rhineland- coal and iron
Increase in territory and population- growing market, add to it free internal
trade

1841/1847 375 km of railway to 2325 km

Prussia owned 57% of all railways in Germany by 1847


Prussian technical expertise and money/official backing to support
developments
Ample markets for produce, and the population rise provided labour and
markets
Prussia






Economic growth- basis for military power
However, having an increase in the army is fine- until 1860s there was no
opportunity to show its skills
Military planning developed- general staff 9body of highly trained senior
officers)
Superior artillery due to Prussian industrial power
The Prussian changes reflected economic changes, but also a strong military
tradition and the flexible approach of the Junker class
Widespread support of the Landwehr
WHY DID REVOLUTION BREAK OUT IN
THE GERMAN CONFEDERATION IN
1848
Germany 1815- 1862
Download
Related flashcards

Historical eras

16 cards

History of India

20 cards

History

17 cards

Postmodernism

21 cards

Industrial processes

25 cards

Create Flashcards