Plunger Poster

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Plunger Lift Reference Guide
By Pass Non-Conventional
High Speed Non-Conventional
Hollow center
Ports
Pacemaker
Fazekas 6-17
Yourman 6-15
Operation
The two pieces of the plunger begin the cycle
on the down hole assembly with plunger and
ball traveling together as one unit as shown in
Fig. 1. The differential pressure below the unit
holds the two pieces together as the well
begins to flow. Then as one unit, the plunger
lifts accumulated fluid to the surface. In the
lubricator at the surface, a shifting rod awaits
the arrival of the plunger (Fig 2). The shifting
rod separates the ball and sleeve, as in figure 3.
The ball begins to fall back to the bottom-hole
assembly, while the sleeve is held in place by
the shifting rod. The auto-adjust controller
determines when the motor valves close the
well control valves to shut in the well and
allow the plunger to fall through the wellhead.
The well remains shut in for a short period for
the plunger to pass through the wellhead and
then resumes production while the plunger
body falls back to the bottom.
Multi-Stage
Lubricator: Quick Drop
Fall Time: 600-800 ft/m
Plunger
Ball
Standing Valve
and Spring
Assembly
Well Velocity
Below 15 Ft/s
Shifting Rod
1
2
Example Wells:
Topping State 1-9
Operation
The multi stage plunger creates bottom hole
pressure by staging the well. The multi stage
tool is usually landed between 40-70% of the
way down the well. The bottom stage is a
traditional plunger setup with a downhole
spring, stop, and conventional plunger. When
the well is open the bottom stage moves fluid
up the hole and the gas bubble above it
provides energy to the second stage. The top
plunger lifts the column of fluid to the
surface as the bottom plunger arrives at the
multi stage assembly with a load for the next
trip. When the well shuts, the top and bottom
plungers fall simultaneously.
1 Ball and Seat (Flow Cage) – maintains the one way flow of liquids
up the tubing and keeps liquids from the bottom stage until the top
plunger can retrieve it.
2 Seal Element (Pack Off) – Seals as fluids are delivered keeping fluid
above the flow cage.
3 Resettable locking mechanism – Holds the tool in open position for
an easy installation and then sets to the closed position when depth is
reached.
4 Collar stop
5 Bumper Spring – absorbs the impact of the arriving plunger.
Cody Hopkins | Summer Intern 2010 | Arkoma Asset | Base Mgmt
Name: Stingray
Manufacturer: Well Master
Lubricator: Quick Drop
Fall Time: 600-800 ft/m
Adjustments to control
the by pass area
Operation
Drop Phase: The plunger has a sliding
sleeve that while in the open
position allows gas and liquid to
flow through an inner mandrel and
exit the flow port at the top of the
mandrel.
Bottom Phase: The plunger falls to
bottom and the sliding sleeve falls
to the closed position preventing
gas and liquid from flowing
Ports
through the plunger.
Lifting Phase: After the sleeve closes
and flow no longer travels through
the plunger, the plunger will travel
to the surface, lifting all liquids
Shifting
above it.
Rod/Dart
Top Phase: Once the fluid and plunger
have arrived at the surface, the
sleeve will be shifted to the open
position to allow the plunger to fall
for another cycle.
Name: Padded Sleeve By-Pass
Manufacturer: PCS
Example Wells:
None
Lubricator: Quick Drop
Fall Time: 500-750 ft/m
Flow Through Ports
Ports
Shifting
Rod
Example Wells:
None
Lubricator: Quick Drop
Fall Time: 500-750 ft/m
Ports
Pads
Well Velocity
Below 10ft/s
Pads
Operation
Drop Phase: The traveling dart is in the open position
below the flow ports allowing high rates of gas and
liquid to flow through the plunger.
Bottom Phase: The plunger falls to bottom and the
traveling dart shifts to the closed position preventing
flow through the plunger.
Lifting Phase: After the dart moves to the closed position
and flow no longer goes through it, the plunger will
travel to the surface, lifting all liquids above it.
Top Phase: Once the fluid and plunger have arrived at the
surface, a rod in the lubricator will shift the dart off
seat and allow the plunger to fall for another cycle.
Operation
Drop Phase: The plunger falls and allows fluid and gas to
flow between the outer body and internal rod. Some
of the exit ports can be closed to restrict the flow
through the plunger to help achieve the most efficient
cycle time.
Bottom Phase: The plunger falls to bottom and the rod
Shifting
shifts to the closed position preventing gas or liquid
Rod
from flowing through the plunger.
Lifting Phase: After the plunger closes and flow no longer
moves through it, the plunger will travel to the surface,
lifting all fluid above it.
Top Phase: Once the fluid and plunger have arrived at the
surface, the internal rod will shift to the open position
to allow the plunger to fall for another cycle.
Testing
Example Wells:
Myton 18
Foster 1-7
Martin C 7
Liquid Unloading
Test
Traveling
Iron Soap
Small Orifices
Where Gas Exits
Sand/Solids
Adjustment to Control By
Pass Area
Pads
Ports
Shifting
Rod
Operation
The By-Pass plungers with pads allow for the seal of a pad plunger for better fluid recovery, while
offering flow through the plunger. The trip rods that open the plunger and allow flow can be located
in the lubricator or on the plunger.
Drop Off
Gas
Exit
Jets
Example Wells:
Paschall 4-21
State c3-28
Hampton 2-18
Coblentz b3-1
Retrieval
Operation
The plungers come with a stationary plunger, retrieval plunger, traveling plunger, and
drop off plunger. The traveling device is able to collect data in a shut-in or flowing
well and is cycled just as any other plunger and caught in the lubricator. The Drop Off
plunger attaches to the fishneck of the stationary plunger and is dropped in the well.
When the two plungers reach the bottom the thermocouple activates at a
predetermined temperature and the plungers separate. The Drop off plunger is cycled
to the surface. When the stationary plunger is ready to come out, the retrieval plunger
is dropped in the well, and an overshot grabs the stationary plunger and the two are
cycle to the surface.
Name: Shuttle Plunger
Manufacturer: Go Tek
Example Wells: Lubricator: Conventional
Orr 2
Fall Time: 350-450 ft/m
Gas Enters
Operation
The liquid aeration plunger removes the liquid load more efficiently and at higher velocities by
jetting gas through orifices in the top of the plunger. The gas jetted through the plunger, as it
travels upward, aerates the liquid above the plunger.
Deviated
Wells
Snake
Name: Snake
Manufacturer: PCS
Example Wells:
Quinton 3-20
Lubricator: Conventional
Fall Time: 450-500 ft/m
Operation
The Shuttle Plunger contains a temperature gauge, pressure gauge, and collar locator.
Unlike the Smart plunger which is available in many different styles, the shuttle
plunger is a traveling plunger and only available in a solid plunger style. The Shuttle
plunger can be downloaded via usb to a laptop in the field for evaluation.
Operation
The snake plunger operates
as a normal conventional
plunger. It offers a flexible
core that allows for bending
and movement through
tubing irregularities.
Paraffin
Solid
Name: Standard Solid
Plunger
Manufacturer: PCS
Example Wells:
None
Lubricator: Conventional
Fall Time: 400-500 ft/m
Operation
The solid plungers are heavy
and able to cut through
paraffin with faster fall
velocities. The plunger has no
moving parts and is durable.
Viper
Sand
Name: Spiral Sand Plunger
Manufacturer: PCS
Name: Liquid Aeration
Plunger
Manufacturer: PCS
Lubricator: Conventional
Fall Time: 450-500 ft/m
4
5
Name: Rapid Drop Example Wells:
Manufacturer: IPS
None
Example Wells:
Fazekas 2-17
Circle F 2-25
Lubricator: Pacemaker
Fall Time: 600-800 ft/m
Lubricator: Conventional
Fall Time: 350-450 ft/m
3
By Pass with Pad
Conventional
Name: Smart Plunger
Manufacturer: PCS
Name: Multi Stage Tool
Manufacturer: PCS
By Pass
Name: Ring
Frictionless By Pass
Manufacturer: PCS
Name: Center By Pass Example Wells:
None
Manufacturer: PCS
Name: Pacemaker Example Wells:
Dungeon 2-13
Manufacturer: IPS
Lubricator: Pacemaker
Fall Time: 700-900 ft/m
Base Mgmt
Name: Viper
Manufacturer:
Well Master
Example Wells:
Varnum,
Guy 4-25
Gas
Exit
Jets
Lubricator: Conventional
Fall Time: 400-500 ft/m
Operation
The sand plunger operates similar to the
Wellmaster Viper. The sand plunger from PCS
offers grooves at the bottom of the plunger that
creates a spinning turbulent seal. Also, the sand
plunger allows gas to flow into the plunger and
clean out grooves to prevent sand from sticking
the plunger.
Ring
Name: Wobble Washer
Manufacturer: PCS
Example Wells:
None
Lubricator: Conventional
Fall Time: 200-350 ft/m
Operation
The Ring plunger is similar to the
triple pad plungers. Shifting rings
keep continuous contact against
the tubing walls producing a
highly effective seal as well as
wiping the tubing before the
paraffin can harden. The seal is
affected due to the movement of
gas by the specially shaped
washer held against the tubing
wall with eccentric springs.
Brush
Example Wells:
Smith 7-20
State c2-28
Dunagan 1-13
Lubricator: Conventional Hampton 2-18
Fall Time: 400-500 ft/m Yourman 7-15
Foster 1
Operation
The Viper plunger is a useful deliquification
plunger in wells producing formation or frac
sand. This conventional plunger is a solid
plunger with a hollow core. The hollow core is
connected to radial holes on the exterior that
direct turbulent gas to the tubing wall pressure
washing the wall on the upstroke. The radial
grooves in the bottom create spinning action
on the upstroke and down stroke.
Low Pressure and/or Marginal Well
Name: Single Pad
Manufacturer: IPS
Example Wells:
Austin 5-13
Heitner 4-13
Picaro 2-36
Lubricator: Conventional
Fall Time: 300-400 ft/m
Name: Brush
Manufacturer: PCS
Example Wells:
Sunflower 3
Anderson 3
Orr 7
Lubricator: Conventional
Fall Time: 450-500 ft/m
Operation
The brush plunger is a
solid mandrel wound
with flexible brush
fibers. Most of the time
these plungers are
constructed with
undercuts ensuring
descalling of the tubing.
Pad
Name: Two-Pad
Manufacturer: PCS
Example Wells:
James 4-24
Mcalester 6-22
State c1-28
Hampton 3-18
Kinnkin Pate 1-3
Lubricator: Conventional
Fall Time: 300-350 ft/m
Name: Triple Pad
Manufacturer: PCS
Example Wells:
Nan 1-15
Simon 3-27
Lubricator:
Conventional
Fall Time: 150-250 ft/m
Operation
The Pad plunger works as a typical conventional plunger and is available in 1, 2, and 3 pad models. The spring
loaded pads press against the tubing wall in order to create a highly efficient seal bringing more fluid to the
surface and avoiding liquid flowback.
Plunger Lift Reference Guide
Life Cycle of the Well
Base Mgmt
Common Plunger Lift Setup
2-3/8", 4.7 ppf Tubing (ID 1.995")
Stage 1:
Well is flowing above critical rate with all flow in mist flow, no liquid gradient at anytime.
Flow Rate (Mcf/day)
• No deliquification Required
Stage 2:
Well begins to bubble and slug when rates fall below critical.
•If velocity > 15ft/s the well is a candidate for a high speed non-conventional plunger such (i.e. pacemaker).
•The wells normally still have high Gas to Liquid Ratios, meaning that they do not require and shut in time. The high GLR also allows for flow
of gas to sales after the arrival of the plunger at the lubricator (after-flow).
•The after-flow allows the two pieces of the plunger to distance themselves, creating a large by-pass area and reducing shut-in time. The
reduced shut-in time, means more trips per-day and more water brought to surface.
Stage 3:
Well begins to have difficulty maintaining seal due to velocity getting below 15ft/s but greater than 10ft/s.
•Candidate for by-pass style, non-convention al plunger
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
In this range for actual production, the
recommendation would be to install a high speed
non-conventional plunger (i.e. pacemaker).
At lower flow rates (below 10ft/s), a
conventional style of plunger would be
recommended
0
•These wells may still require a lot of trips to remain unloaded, but need little or no flow time after each trip. Pacemaker wells running with
significant off time or wells that have just begun “slug – flow” conditions are indicators of this life cycle stage.
200
400
600
800
Critical Flow
Stage 4:
15 ft/s
10 ft/s
Poly. (Critical Flow)
3-1/2" Tubing (ID 2.992")
2-7/8" Tubing (ID 2.441")
Well has velocity < 10ft/s
Stage 5:
Well has such low bottom-hole pressure that a conventional plunger doesn’t work.
2000
Flow Rate (Mcf/day)
•The conventional plunger comes in many different styles in order to adapt to well conditions such as: sand, fluid load, tubing irregularities, or
scale.
Flow Rate (Mcf/day)
•Candidate for conventional style plunger (i.e. iron soap, pad, viper, etc).
•This stage of the life cycle occurs when GLR decrease and pressure build up is required to trip the plunger.
1500
1000
500
0
•Candidate for multi stage plunger
0
•This is the final stage in a wells life, when the GLR drops so low that a conventional plunger won’t cycle.
•The Multi-Stage plunger stages the well into parts and creates bottom hole pressure by reducing the distance any single plunger has to travel.
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0
1000
100
200
Critical Flow
15 ft/s
10 ft/s
300
400
500
600
Poly. (Critical Flow)
Critical Flow
15 ft/s
10 ft/s
Poly. (Critical Flow)
Lubricators
Bumper Spring Assembly
The lubricator is installed on top of the tree or master valve to cushions the plunger upon arrival into the wellhead to prevent damage. The spring inside absorbs the impact of the plunger. The catcher
holds the plunger in place and allows for safe removal of the plunger or inspection. All lubricators are available with on or two outlets.
Fazekas #5
PCS Conventional
Lubricator
IPS Pace Maker Lubricator
Pace Maker Setup
Conventional Setup
Top View
Cap
Lubricator
Cap
Spring
Master Valve
Pace Maker text
is right side up,
indicating it is for
use with the pace
maker
Bumper plate
Spring
Bumper plate
Spring
Threaded to
Remove Plunger
Outlet
Shifting Rod
Pace Maker text
is upside down
Threaded to
Remove Plunger
Outlet
Catcher
Catcher (once
plunger is at the
surface, it can be
caught by shifting
the handle)
Cody Hopkins | Summer Intern 2010 | Arkoma Asset | Base Mgmt
700
Wellhead Pressure (psi)
Wellhead Pressure (psi)
Surface Equipment
Controller /
Motor Valve
1000
Wellhead Pressure (psi)
•These non-conventional plungers can reach the bottom almost as quick as the pacemaker, but do not require any after- flow since it is one
piece.
Flow Line to Sales
In this range, the
recommendation would be
to run a bypass style nonconventional plunger
In this set-up the shifting rod is inserted into
the spring. During the operation the spring
and rod will be assembled as shown inside the
lubricator.
Outlet
Catcher
Ledges to hold the
spring or shifting rod
in the lubricator.
To change from the Pace Maker setup to this conventional setup, the
upper portion must be unscrewed and flipped around. The shifting rod
also must be pulled out and a second bumper spring ( not pictured)
must be placed inside the existing spring.
PCS Bumper Spring Features:
• Standard Fishing Neck
• Tapered body
• Spring
-Helps prevent down hole damage due to plunger
fall
4. Mandrel
5. Standing Valve Cage
- ball and seat are used to hold liquid in the tubing
6. “No-Go”
-prevent fall through seating nipple
7. Cups
-sits in the seating nipple
8. Locking Mechanism
7. Orifice
- allows flow through the bumper spring assembly
Standing valves
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