Cold climates: Focus on Boreal lands

Chapter 20
Two types of cold climate are:
• Tundra climate – coldest
(furthest from equator)
• Boreal climate
‘Boreal’ means ‘northern’
Tundra climate is in Arctic Circle
Boreal climate is between 50-66.5 N.
January: very cold, temperatures down -29C in places
Short, warm summers up to 16C
Less than 400mm of rain per year
There are many coniferous
forests of:
• Spruce trees
• Pine trees
• Fir trees
• Most conifers are evergreen
• Slender shape offers little resistance to the wind which prevents damages from
• Thick bark keeps moisture in and stops wind and cold from getting into the trees.
• Thin needles don’t wither in the wind.
• The branches slope towards the ground to allow the snow to fall off.
• Shallow roots develop in the thin layers of soil.
• Sustainable logging is extremely important.
• Rule: Cut one, plant two trees (as said by Swedish Government)
1/3 of the worlds trees
Main details from this chapter include:
Russia, USA, Canada, Finland, Norway and Sweden are the Boreal lands of the world.
They are located in the northern hemisphere between 50-=66.5 (north of the
There are two types:
The climate type : Cool temperate Climate
Cold winters: -29C (high latitudes)
Summers: 16C in July
Precipitation: 400mm per year
Natural vegetation: coniferous trees (spruce, fir, pine).
Vegetation adapts by: Shape, bark, needles, shallow roots and sloping branches
‘Taiga’ = forests of the Boreal area 1/3 of the worlds trees).
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