Chapter 10 Nutrition

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Ch. 10
Nutrition
Created by Coach Luttrell
Information taken from Bronson, M.H., Cleary,
M.J., Hubbard, B.M., Zike, D., Glencoe Teen
Health Course 3, 2009
Lesson 1: The Importance of
Nutrition
Objectives:
• The student will be able to explain why the body needs
nutrients.
• The student will be able to identify factors that
influence which foods you chose.
• The student will be able to describe how your emotions
can affect your food choice.
Vocab Words (4): Nutrients, Nutrition, Appetite, Hunger.
The Role of Food
• Food is a necessity in
life, like water and air.
• Your food choices
affect all 3 sides of
your health triangle.
• Ex. not eating
breakfast.
• Physical- Low on
energy
• Men/Emo- Trouble
focusing
• Social- Grumpy and
irritable
Food, Nutrients and Nutrition
• Nutrients: are
substances in food that
your body needs.
• They help build new
tissue, repair damaged
cells and produce
energy.
• Nutrients nourish the body in two ways:
• 1) They provide energy (proteins,
carbohydrates, and fats)
• 2) They help your body run smoothly
(vitamins, minerals, and water).
• Nutrition: the study of nutrients and how the body
uses them.
What Influences Food
Choices?
•
•
•
•
Peer Pressure
Availability
Convenience
Knowledge of
Nutrition
• Advertising
• Family and
Culture
Appetite and Hunger
• Appetite: the
psychological desire for
food.
• Smells or memories might
make you crave food even
though you do not need it.
• Hunger: the body's
physical need for food.
• It is important to learn the
difference between
appetite and hunger so you
can make healthy food
choices.
Food and
Emotions
• Emotions can also
influence the way we
eat.
• If someone is feeling
sad or stressed out
they might turn to food
to feel better.
• Remember to deal with
your feelings and
emotions in healthy
ways. (journalling,
talking with a friend,
exercising)
Meeting Nutrient Needs
• All bodies need the same nutrients, but not the same
amount. (ex. Size, Age, Energy level)
• Teens vs Adults, Olympians vs Average Joes
• Most people in the US get enough food to eat but
don't get the nutrients they need. This is because of
foods that are high in fat and added sugar.
• Eating low-nutrient foods, along with overeating can
lead to obesity, heart disease and cancer.
Ch. 10 Lesson 1 Questions
1. Define appetite and explain how it can
affect which foods you choose to eat.
2. What do nutrients do for your body?
3. What role do emotions play in your food
choices?
4. Which factors do you think influence a
teen's food choices most? Explain your
answer.
5. How is it possible to have plenty of food
and yet be poorly nourished?
Lesson 2: Nutrients for
Wellness
Objectives:
• The student will be able to identify the six major
classes of nutrients.
• The student will be able to explain specific ways your
body uses nutrients.
Vocab Words (7): Carbohydrates, Fiber, Proteins,
Saturated Fats, Unsaturated Fats, Vitamins, Minerals
Nutrients and Nutrition
• Scientists have found
more than 40 different
kinds of nutrients.
• The six main
categories of nutrients
are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
• Eating a variety of healthy foods will help you get
the nutrients you need.
Carbohydrates
• Carbohydrates:
sugars and starches
that occur naturally in
foods, mainly in plants.
• Made up of sugar
molecules
• The body's main
source of energy
• Nutritionists suggest
that 45%-65% of daily
energy should come
from carbs.
Simple vs.
Complex
Carbohydrates
Two types of carbs:
1. When molecules stay
separate it forms
simple carbs.
2. When molecules join
together they form long
chains called starches
or complex carbs.
Fiber
• Fiber: is the parts of
fruits, vegetables,
grains and beans that
your body cannot
digest.
• As fiber moves through
the digestive system it
pushes other food
particles along.
• Eating high-fiber foods
can help reduce certain
types of cancers and
heart disease.
Proteins
•
•
•
•
•
Proteins: are nutrients your
body uses to build, repair and
maintain cells and tissues.
They are made up of chemical
building blocks called amino
acids.
Muscles repair themselves and
build new tissue after a
workout.
Proteins also help fight
sickness and disease because
parts of our immune system
are made of proteins.
Complete proteins contain all
9 essential amino acids.
Examples are animal base
products.
Fats
• Saturated Fats: are fats that are solid at room temperature.
• Ex, Butter, cheese, and fatty meats.
• Eating too many saturated fats increase your risk of heart
disease.
• Unsaturated Fats: are fats that are liquid at room temperature.
• Ex, Olive oil, nuts, and avocados
• Promote healthy skin and normal cell growth and they carry
vitamins to where they are needed in the body.
Cholesterol
• Cholesterol is both a
fatlike substance found in
food and a fatty
substance in the blood.
• Cholesterol in food only
comes from animal-based
foods like eggs, meat,
poultry, fish and dairy
products.
• Eating too much food
cholesterol can raise
blood cholesterol, clog
arteries and lead to heart
disease.
Vitamins & Minerals
• Vitamins: substances
that help your body fight
infections and use other
nutrients, among other
jobs.
• Minerals: elements that
help form healthy bones,
teeth and regulate certain
body processes.
There are two categories of vitamins:
1. Water-Soluble dissolve in water and your body cannot store
them. Ex: Vitamin C and B Complex
2. Fat-Soluble are stored in the body until needed. Ex: Vitamin A, D,
E & K.
Vitamins & Minerals
Sources from food
Functions in the body
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Vitamin A- healthy skin and vision
B Vitamins- healthy nervous system,
produce and maintain new cells.
Vitamin C- healthy teeth, gums and
bones. Helps health wound and fight
infection.
Vitamin D- strong bones and teeth,
helps absorbs calcium.
Vitamin E- helps protect cells.
Calcium- build and maintain strong
bones and teeth.
Fluoride- strong bones and teeth,
prevents tooth decay.
Iron- Hemoglobin in blood cells.
Magnesium- strong bones; releases
energy for muscles.
Potassium- regulate fluid balance in
tissues; promotes proper nerve
function.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dark leafy greens; dairy products; eggs;
yellow-orange fruits and vegetables.
Poultry; eggs; meat; fish; whole-grain
breads
Citrus fruits; strawberries; mangoes;
tomatoes; broccoli; potatoes
Milk; salmon; egg yolks; liver
Dark leafy greens; fish; nuts; seeds;
vegetable oils.
Dairy products; dark leafy greens;
canned fish with edible bones.
Fluorinated water; fish with edible
bones.
Red meat; poultry; dry beans; nuts;
eggs; dried fruits; dark leafy greens.
Dark leafy greens; beans and peas;
whole-grain breads and cereals.
Bananas; oranges; dry beans and peas;
tomato juice.
Water
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Plays a role in body functions
Helps you digest and absorb
food
Regulates body temperature and
blood circulation.
Carries nutrients and oxygen to
cells.
Dehydration, or lack of water in
your body, can cause problems.
Fatigue, confusion and trouble
focusing.
You should drink between six
and eight 8 oz. glasses of fluid a
day.
Even more fluid is needed
during activity or hot weather.
Choose milk or water and limit
intake of juice and soda
"If it were possible to drain all the water from
a 160 lb. man, his dehydrated body would
weigh only 64 lbs."~Bethesda Health &
Fitness Center
Ch.10 Lesson 2 Questions
1. What is fiber? What function does it have in the
body?
2. What are the six major classes of nutrients?
3. What are some sources of complete proteins?
4. Make a list of the foods you have eaten today.
Identify which nutrients can be found in each food.
Are there any nutrient groups that you should have
eaten more of?
5. How can the food you eat today affect your
health in the future?
Lesson 3: Following Nutrition
Guidelines
Objectives:
• The student will be able to explain how to use
the MyPyramid food guidance system.
• The student will be able to identify the names
of the five main food groups.
• The student will be able to describe
recommendations from the Dietary Guidelines
for Americans.
Vocab Words (4): MyPyramid food guidance
system, Calorie, Sodium, Foodborne illness
Guidelines for Healthy Eating
• MyPyramid Food Guidance System: is a
system designed to help Americans make
healthful food choices.
• Created by the United States Department of
Agriculture (USDA).
• The pyramid is divided into six sections:
• The 5 main food groups (grains, vegetables,
fruits, dairy, meat/beans)
• The 6th section represents fats and oils.
• It also has a figure walking up steps to show that
you need exercise everyday to stay healthy.
USDA replaced the MyPyramid in 2011 with Choose My Plate
http://www.choosemyplate.gov/
Other Guidelines for Good Health
• Eat a variety of foods, so you get all the nutrients
your body needs.
• Eat more fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
• 1/2 the grains you eat a day should be whole
grains.
• Balance the calories you consume with physical
activity.
• Calorie: a unit of heat that measures the energy
available in food.
• A normal teen needs about 2,000 calories a day.
If you play a sport or are very active you might
need more calories in your diet.
• Eating more calories than you can burn off can
lead to gaining more weight than is healthy for
your body.
• Teens should be physically active for at least 60
minutes each day. Exercise helps to burn calories
and help you stay healthy.
Guidelines for Health (Cont.)
• Limit fats, sugar and
salt.
• Many processed foods
contain hidden fats.
• Don't eat sweets
everyday.
• Sodium: a nutrient that
helps control the
amount of fluid in your
body.
• Found in salt.
• Too much can cause
high blood pressure.
Nutrition Labels
• Learning how to read
nutrition labels can help
you make healthy food
choices.
• Start with Serving Sizes
• Then check calories
• Limit these
• Get enough of these
• Quick guide to % of Daily
Value:
• 5% is low and 20% is
high.
• Bottom footnotes
Keep Foods Safe to Eat
• Foods must be handled and
prepared properly.
• If not they can become
contaminated with bacteria.
• Foodborne Illness: a
sickness resulting from eating
food that is not safe to eat.
• Ways to keep food safe:
1. Wash hands with hot soapy
water before handling food.
2. Make sure foods are cooked
and stored at the right
temperatures.
3. Use separate cutting boards
and knives when cutting raw
meat
Ch.10 Lesson 3 Questions
1. Who created the MyPyramid food guidance
system and what is its purpose?
2. What are the five main food groups in
MyPyramid? What does the sixth group
represent?
3. What are two things you can do to keep your
foods safe from harmful bacteria?
4. Explain what MyPyramid is designed to help
you know about which foods to eat.
5. Tom had a peanut butter sandwich and a glass
of milk for lunch. Which food groups do these
foods represent? What else could Tom eat to add
more food groups to his lunch?
Lesson 4: Planning Meals &
Snacks
Objectives:
• The student will be able to explain why breakfast
is important.
• The student will be able to describe mealplanning tips.
• The student will be able to identify healthy ways
to snack.
Vocab Words (2): Empty-calorie foods, Nutrient
density
Planning Healthy Meals
Three key words:
1. Variety- helps make
meals more nutritious
and interesting
2. Moderation- portion
size and limiting fats,
sugars and salt can
help lower your risk of
certain diseases
3. Balance- Calories in
with calories out. Use
exercise to help fight
weight gain.
Breakfast
• Breakfast has been called the most important meal of
the day.
• After sleeping all night your body needs to reboot itself.
• Eating breakfast helps:
1. Get your body going.
2. Provides fuel to last until lunch.
3. Staying alert and focused.
• Round out your meal with a cup
of fruit and a glass of milk.
• Watch for added sugars in trail
mixes, breakfast bars and
toaster pastries.
• Ex. Honey, sugar, molasses and
high fructose corn syrup.
Lunch & Dinner
• Eat 4 or 5 smaller meals
throughout the day vs. 3
big meals.
• Helps keep metabolism
steady.
• Vary proteins- 5-7 1oz.
servings of protein a day
• Empty-calorie foods:
foods that offer few, if any,
nutrients but do supply
calories.
• Watch fats, sugar & salt
• Keep a food journal so
you don't get too much or
too little of anything
• Exercise and stay active
Snacking Smart
• Snacking can help meet
nutritional needs and
also help us make it to
the next meal.
• Make healthy choices
when you snack.
• Don't eat absent
mindedly
• Don't eat out of the
container
• Don't eat right before a
meal
• Nutrient density: is the amount of nutrients relative to
the number of calories they provide.
Eating Out,
Eating Right
There are ways to eat
healthy even when you
eat at a restaurant:
• Choose an appetizer for
your meal
• Take half of your meal
home for later
• Split a dish with someone
• Check for heart healthy or
low calories options
• Chose foods that are
grilled, broiled or roasted
instead of fried
• Ask for sauces and
dressings on the side
Ch.10 Lesson 4 Questions
1. What makes a food an empty-calorie food?
2. Why is breakfast important?
3. What are three meal-planning tips that allow
variety, moderation and balance to your eating
plan?
4. How can you avoid overeating when you eat at
a restaurant?
5. You are hungry, but dinner is still an hour away.
What is a snack that would help you feel less
hungry but still leave you ready to eat dinner?
How much of the snack do you think you should
eat?
Extras
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