Boreal Forest - Lisa Peck`s Environmental Studies Class

Benjamin F.
Image by:
The Boreal Forest Location
 The Boreal Forest spans nearly 12000 miles covering over
11% of the Earths surface. These statistics make it the
largest biome in the world.
 The Taiga expands over the entire northern part of North
America and Canada and up into small potions of Alaska. It
also spans the northern most part of Asia and parts of
 The location of this biome makes the weather fluctuate
very dramatically. The winters are brutally cold, but the
springs and summers are warm, humid, and moist.
(Taiga Climate)
Map of the Taiga
The Climate of the Boreal Forest
 The climate of the Boreal Forest is mostly cold and
there are fewer than four months out of the year that
the temperature is above 10⁰C (50⁰F).
 The winters in the Taiga last for six to seven months.
The temperature range for this biome is -54 to 21⁰C (65 to 70⁰F).
 The average annual rainfall is 12-33 inches per year.
Most of this precipitation falls in the spring as summer
(Taiga Climate)
Abiotic Factors in the Taiga
 Some obvious abiotic factors in the Taiga would be
precipitation and sunlight. Because of the fact that the
Taiga is located just south of the Tundra biome, it has very
little sunlight. It is also located just above some of the
warmer climates which means that in the summer it gets a
lot of rainfall.
 The other common abiotic factor in almost every biome is
temperature. The temperature in any environment is a very
important factor because it will determine whether or not
an egg will hatch, a tree will grow, or even is a deer will find
it’s next meal.
(Abiotic Factors)
Native Plants
 The Balsam Fir is one of the most common trees to be
found in the Taiga. It is a conifer and has pinecones
like most other conifers. It can grow to be 40 – 80 feet
tall. These trees can live to 200+ years old. The needles
of these trees are 11 and a half inches long.
 The seeds of the tree are “winged” and are mostly
dispersed by the wind. This tree has the worst defense
against fire of all of the conifers. The seeds are
destroyed by the fire and they first appear 20 – 50
years after a fire.
(Taiga Biomes)
Balsam Fir
Image by: dvs
More Native Plants
 The Black Spruce tree is another very common tree to
the Taiga biome. This tree can grow 25 meters tall and
the tip of the tree ends in a spike of needles shooting
up. The needles of the tree are short, only about a half
inch long and sharp.
 Many animals do not feed on this tree. The Black
Spruce has been able to adapt to the cold by
developing folded twigs and waxed needles. It also has
a rough bark that traps the heat and the moisture in
when there is no rain.
(Taiga Biomes)
The Black Spruce
Photos by:
Native Animals
 The wolverine is a animal that has perfected the art of
keeping itself warm under any conditions. It has a coat
of thick fur that is water-proof and protects it from the
snow and bitter winds. It also has jaws that can bite
through frozen bone and meat.
 It weighs about 45 pounds as an adult and this makes it
the biggest weasel in its family. The sad thing about
the wolverine is that it is considered a rare and
vulnerable species. If one were to go looking for one
they may never see one.
(Taiga Biomes)
Photo by:
More Animals from the Taiga
 The Long-Eared Owl is a native species to the boreal
forest and has a length of 35 centimeters. They have
adapted to hear better by increasing the size. They also
have their ears higher up on their head. This make
their sense of hearing 50% better than other owls.
They have a wingspan of 37 – 40 inches.
 They are listed as a species of special concern in the
fish and wildlife conservation commission. This is
probably because we humans keep building roads and
(Taiga Biomes)
Long-Eared Owl
Image by: Tasshu Rikimara
Competition in the Taiga
 An example of competition would be like a squirrel
eating a family of ants. Another example would be the
same squirrel being eaten by a red fox.
 Competition is a very prominent part of everyday life
for the animals in the Boreal Forest. Every day they
have to dodge danger left and right even just to go out
and get food for the day.
 An example of cooperation would be like a
woodpecker burrowing into a tree and then a LongEared Owl using that burrow as a home.
Threats to the Boreal Forest
 There are several threats to the Boreal Forest but by far the most
urgent of the industrial threat. There are so many factories in the
U.S.A alone that we can account for much of the pollution of the
Earths atmosphere. This act has fragmented the Ontario forest
and made small patches of forest separated from each other.
 The other common threat to any biome is the housing threat. So
many more people are being born into the world that people
need more place to stay. They choose more distant places to live
and they cut down the forests to build town homes or apartment
complexes. This, in turn, cuts into the forest and makes it harder
and harder for the animals that live there to find suitable habitat
to make families and find food.
(Threats to Ontario’s Boreal Forest)
Endangered Species
 One of the most endangered species in the Boreal
Forest is not an animal at all. It is a flower called the
lady’s slipper. It is a flower from the orchid family. This
flower is endangered when the trees are cut down.
They get too much sunlight and they cannot survive.
 Another endangered species is called Methuselah’s
Beard. This is a lichen and is also endangered when the
trees are cut down because lichen live primarily on
trees and they form a mutualistic relationship with the
(Threats to Ontario’s Boreal Forest)
Lady’s slipper
Lady’s Slipper image by: anyjazz65
Invasive Species
 Knapweed is one of the worst invasive species. Just by
its name it sounds like a destructive plant. It will grow
and grow until it has covered every inch of the forest
floor. This blocks out the growing space and makes it
very hard for anything else to grow in the forest.
 Another invasive species is Cheatgrass. Cheatgrass is
an invasive species that can draw moisture and
nutrients from very deprived soil. This makes the
Cheatgrass a very difficult competitor.
(Threats to Ontario’s Boreal Forest)
Image by:
 The Boreal Forest is the largest land based biome
 Known as Boreal from Canada, but it is also known as Taiga
from Russia
 29% of the worlds forest cover comes from the Boreal
 300 species of birds call the forest home during the spring
and summer months, but there are only 30 species that stay
through the entire year.
 The Taiga stores an enormous warehouse of carbon. It
mostly comes from the peat land.
 The Taiga is the most susceptible to wildfires in the world
(30 interesting facts)
Importance of Biome
 The importance of this biome is that it provides a
refuge for birds and other animals during the spring
and during the winter it “dies” and the next spring it is
reborn to become something new.
 If this biome did not exist then the temperature would
net be as cool as it was today. It would be significantly
more hot. There would not be as many animals in the
environment as there were today because there are at
least 30 species of birds alone that live in the Boreal
Forest year round.
(30 interesting facts about the taiga)
 This is the video.
Works Cited
 "Taiga Climate." Taiga Climate. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2012.
 "What Are Some Abiotic Factors in the Boreal Forest?" Bright Hub. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Oct.
 "Taiga Biomes." Taiga Biomes. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2012.
 "Threats to Ontario's Boreal Forest." Threats to the Boreal Forest. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2012.
 "30 Fascinating Facts about the Boreal Forest." TreeHugger. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2012.
 Assignearth. "Boreal Forest." YouTube. YouTube, 09 July 2007. Web. 23 Oct. 2012.
 Ben
 DRU! (Flickr)
 Arthur Chapman (Flickr)
 Scott_Calleja (Flickr)
 Tasshu Rikimara (Flickr)
 Dvs (Flickr)
 Echoforsburg (Flickr)
 Anyjazz65 (Flickr)[email protected]/47739758/
 Flickr. Yahoo!, n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012.
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