Francisco Arteio

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Increasing Wind Power Generation
Penetration Degree in Brazil: a Challenge for
the Brazilian Interconnected Power System
Francisco José Arteiro de Oliveira
Operation Planning and Scheduling
Director
1
Agenda
• Introduction
• Wind power generation penetration degree increase in the Brazilian
Energetic Matrix
• Characteristics of wind power plants in Brazil
• Major challenges for the increase of wind generation penetration
degree in the Brazilian Interconnected Power System - BIPS
• Ongoing improvements necessary to connect wind farms to grids
with high wind generation penetration degree
• Conclusions
2
Introduction
3
Brazilian Interconected Power System - BIPS
+3.400km
• The BIPS covers 2/3 of the national territory:
5 million km2
Isolated systems
• The BIPS supplies about 98% of the country’s
electricity consumption.
• Hydro generation is dominant: about 79% of
Brazilian
Interconnected
Power
System
the installed capacity
• Thermal generation is complementary with
+3.400km
diversity of fuels: nuclear, coal, natural gas, oil,
Utilities
Cemig
Furnas
AES-Tiete
CESP
CDSA
Consórcios
Copel
Tractebel
diesel (about 16%)
• Small share (about 5%) of other renewable
energies: wind and biomass
Grande River
• Main transmission grid with long distance lines
Tiete River
Paranaiba River
Paranapanema River
ITAIPU
BINATIONAL
Iguaçu River
(≥ 230 kV). Over 100,000 km of transmission
lines
4
Brazilian Interconected Power System - BIPS
• Multi-owned: 97 agents own
assets (≥ 230 kV)
• The Main Transmission Grid is
operated and expanded in order
to achieve safety of supply and
system optimization
• Inter-regional and inter-basin
transmission links allow
interchange of large blocks of
energy between regions, based
on the hydrological diversity
between river basins
• The current challenge is the
interconnection of the projects
in the Amazonian Region
5
Brazilian Electricity Supply in 2012
Source: Brazilian Energy Balance 2013 / year 2012 – MME/EPE
6
Wind Power Generation Penetration Degree
Increase in the Brazilian Energetic Matrix
7
Regularization Capacity Evolution
Evolution of Cumulative Volume and of the Installed Power (hidro generation) in BIPS
330
110,000
Installed Capacity
100,000
Serra da Mesa
- 43.3 . 10 3hm 3
Useful Volume
300
Emborcação
- 13.1 . 10 3hm 3
90,000
Tucuruí
- 10.4 . 10 3hm 3
- 39.0 . 10 3hm 3
3
Á. Vermelha - 5..2 . 10 hm
60,000
210
3
180
Itumbiara – 12.5 . 10 3hm 3
150
50,000
Ilha Solteira e
Três Irmãos - 16.3 .
40,000
3
10 hm
Growth Between 2000-2014
3
Installed Power
Volume
-> 47.2%
-> 10.8%
Marimbondo – 5.3 .
30,000
120
90
10 3hm 3
Três Marias -15.,3 .
3
São Simão - 5.5 . 10 3hm 3
70,000
Volume (1000 hm )
240
Sobradinho – 28.7 . 10 3hm 3
80,000
Installed capacity - Hidro (MW)
270
Nova Ponte
Capivara - 5.7 . 10 3hm 3
10 3hm 3
60
20,000
Furnas
- 17.2 . 10 3hm 3
30
10,000
0
0
1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2014
The 13 largest reservoirs identified in the figure have useful volume greather than 5 x 103 hm3, and together account for 74% of total accumulated volume
8
Gradual Reduction of Regularization
How many months of maximum energy storage
6.2
5.4
Ten-year Plan*
5.0
4.7
3.35
2001
2013
2015
2017
2021
Ratio between stored energy / load
9
The Expansion of Supply Between 2012 and 2017
TYPE
12/31/2012
GROWTH
2013-2017
12/31/2017
HIDRO(1)
MW
89,521
%
77.9
MW
107,491
%
73.8
MW
17,970
%
20.1
NUCLEAR
1,990
1.7
1,990
1.4
0
0.0
N. GAS/L.N. GAS
9,808
8.5
13,054
9.0
3,246
33.1
COAL
2,125
1.9
3,210
2.2
1,085
51.1
BIOMASS(2)
4,948
4.3
5,875
4.0
927
18.7
749
0.7
749
0.5
0
0.0
OIL
4,048
3.5
4,821
3.3
773
19.1
WIND
1,762
1.5
8,477
5.8
6,715
381.1
114,951
100.0
145,667
100.0
30,716
26.7
OTHER(3)
TOTAL
(1) Includes the participation of Itaipu and small hidro power plants;
(2) Includes small thermal power plants;
(3) The portion "OTHER" refers to other thermal plants with CVU.
10
Wind Generation Expansion in Southern
INSTALLED CAPACITY IN
NOVEMBER 2012
621 MW
(21 UEE)
Água Doce
Amparo
Aquibatã
Bom Jardim
Campo Belo
Cascata
Cruz Alta
Púlpito
Rio do Ouro
231 MW
Salto
Santo Antônio
Cerro Chato I
Cerro Chato II
Cerro Chato III
Cidreira 1
390 MW
Palmares
Parque Eólico de Osório
Parque Eólico de Sangradouro
Sangradouro 2
Sangradouro 3
Parque Eólico dos Índios
Source: ANEEL
11
Wind Generation Expansion in Southern
INSTALLED CAPACITY IN
DECEMBER 2015
1648 MW
621 MW
(21 UEE)
1027 MW
(43 UEE)
Água Doce
Amparo
Aquibatã
Bom Jardim
SOMENTE EMPREENDIMENTOS COM
OUTORGA
Campo Belo
Cascata
Cruz Alta
Púlpito
Rio do Ouro
231 MW
Salto
Atlântica I
Giruá
Santo Antônio
Atlântica II
Ibirapuitã I
Atlântica IV
Minuano I
Atlântica V
Minuano II
Cerro Chato IV
Osório 2
Cerro Chato V
Osório 3
Cerro Chato VI
Pinhal
Cerro dos Trindade
Pontal 2B
Chuí I
REB Cassino I
Chuí II
REB Cassino II
Chuí IV
REB Cassino III
Chuí V
Vento Aragano I
Corredor do Senandes II
Verace I
Corredor do Senandes III
Verace II
Corredor do Senandes IV
Verace III
Dos Índios 2
Verace IV
Dos Índios 3
Verace V
Fazenda Rosário 2
Verace IX
Força 1
Verace VI
Força 2
Verace VII
Força 3
Verace VIII
Cerro Chato I
Cerro Chato II
Cerro Chato III
Cidreira 1
Palmares
Parque Eólico de Osório
Parque Eólico de Sangradouro
Sangradouro 2
Sangradouro 3
Parque Eólico dos Índios
390 MW
1027 MW
Verace X
Source: ANEEL
12
Wind Generation Expansion in Northeast
18 MW
PEDRA DO SAL
PRAIA DO MORGADO
PRAIA FORMOSA VOLTA DO RIO
542 MW
AMONTADA
PARACURU
TAÍBA ALBATROZ
PARQUE EÓLICO DE BEBERIBE
FOZ DO RIO CHORÓ
PRAIAS DE PARAJURU
BONS VENTOS
CANOA QUEBRADA
CANOA QUEBRADA (RV)ALEGRIA I MANGUE
ENACEL
ALEGRIA II MANGUE
ICARAIZINHO
ARATUÁ
MANGUE
MIASSABA III
MANGUE
RIO DO FOGO
CABEÇO PRETO
CABEÇO PRETO IV
373 MW
SECO 1
SECO 2
SECO 3
SECO 5
MILLENIUM COELHOS I PRESIDENTE
ALBATROZ COELHOS II VITÓRIA
ATLÂNTICA COELHOS III
CAMURIM COELHOS IV
CARAVELA MATARACÁ
ALHANDRA
66 MW
PIRAUÁ
XAVANTE
GRAVATÁ
MANDACARU
SANTA MARIA
Barra dos Coqueiros
25 MW
INSTALLED CAPACITY
IN NOVEMBER 2012
1154 MW
(50 UEE)
35 MW
MACAÚBAS
NOVO HORIZONTE
SEABRA
95 MW
Source: ANEEL
13
Wind Generation Expansion in Northeast
432 MW
18 MW
59 MW
PEDRA DO SAL
PRAIA DO MORGADO
PRAIA FORMOSA VOLTA DO RIO
Araras
Boca do Córrego
Buriti
Cajucoco
Cataventos Paracuru 1
Colônia
Coqueiro
Dunas de Paracuru
Embuaca
Faisa I
Faisa II
Faisa III
Faisa IV
Faisa V
Fleixeiras I
Garças
Guajirú
Icaraí
542 MW 1249 MW
AMONTADA
PARACURU
TAÍBA ALBATROZ
PARQUE EÓLICO DE BEBERIBE
FOZ DO RIO CHORÓ
PRAIAS DE PARAJURU
BONS VENTOS
CANOA QUEBRADA
CANOA QUEBRADA (RV)ALEGRIA I MANGUE
ENACEL
ALEGRIA II MANGUE
ICARAIZINHO
ARATUÁ
MANGUE
MIASSABA III
MANGUE
RIO DO FOGO
CABEÇO PRETO
CABEÇO PRETO IV
373 MW 2559 MW
SECO 1
SECO 2
SECO 3
SECO 5
Tacaicó
Icaraí I
Taíba Águia
Icaraí II
Taíba Andorinha
Ilha Grande
Trairí
Jandaia
Vento do Oeste
Jandaia I
Vento Formoso
Junco I
Ventos de Horizonte
Junco II
Ventos de Santa Rosa
Lagoa Seca
Ventos de Santo
Malhadinha I
Inácio
Mundaú
Ventos de São
Pau Brasil
Geraldo
Pau Ferro
Pedra do Gerônimo Ventos de Sebastião
Planalto da Taíba Ventos de Tianguá
Ventos de Tianguá
Porto Salgado
Norte
Potengi
Ventos do Morro do
Quixaba
Chapéu
Ribeirão
Ventos do Parazinho
São Paulo
Marco dos Ventos 1
Marco dos Ventos 2
Marco dos Ventos 3
Marco dos Ventos 4
Marco dos Ventos 5
Ventos do Norte 1
Ventos do Norte 10
Ventos do Norte 2
Ventos do Norte 3
Ventos do Norte 4
Ventos do Norte 5
Ventos do Norte 6
Ventos do Norte 7
Ventos do Norte 8
Ventos do Norte 9
INSTALLED CAPACITY IN
DECEMBER 2015
MILLENIUM COELHOS I PRESIDENTE
ALBATROZ COELHOS II VITÓRIA
ATLÂNTICA COELHOS III
CAMURIM COELHOS IV
CARAVELA MATARACÁ
ALHANDRA
7738 MW
66 MW
PIRAUÁ
1154 MW
(50 UEE)
XAVANTE
GRAVATÁ
MANDACARU
SANTA MARIA
Barra dos Coqueiros
25 MW
35 MW
MACAÚBAS
NOVO HORIZONTE
SEABRA
95 MW
Source: ANEEL
1144 MW
Alvorada
Ametista
Angical
Borgo
Caetité
Caetité 2
Caetité 3
Caititu
Candiba
Coqueirinho
Corrupião
Cristal
Da Prata
Dos Araçás
Dourados
Emiliana
Espigão
Guanambi
Guirapá
Igaporã
Ilhéus
78 MW
Aratuá 3
Areia Branca
Arizona I
Asa Branca I
Asa Branca II
Asa Branca III
Asa Branca IV
Asa Branca V
Asa Branca VI
Asa Branca VII
Asa Branca VIII
Caiçara 2
Caiçara do Norte
Calango 1
Calango 2
Calango 3
Calango 4
Calango 5
Campos dos Ventos II
Inhambu
Joana
Licínio de Almeida
Maron
Morrão
N. Sra. da Conceição
Pajeú do Vento
Pedra Branca
Pedra do Reino
Pedra do Reino III
Pelourinho
Pilões
Pindaí
Planaltina
Porto Seguro
Primavera
Rio Verde
São Judas
São Pedro do Lago
Seraíma
Serra do Salto
Carcará I
Carcará II
Carnaúbas
Costa Branca
Dreen Boa Vista
Dreen Cutia
Dreen Guajiru
Dreen Olho d'Água
Dreen São Bento do
Norte
Eurus I
Eurus II
Eurus III
Eurus IV
Eurus VI
Famosa I
Farol
GE Jangada
GE Maria Helena
Juremas
Lanchinha
Macacos
Mar e Terra
Mel 02
Miassaba 3
Miassaba 4
Modelo I
Modelo II
Morro dos Ventos
Morro dos Ventos
Morro dos Ventos
Morro dos Ventos
Morro dos Ventos
Morro dos Ventos
Pelado
Pedra Preta
Reduto
Rei dos Ventos 1
Rei dos Ventos 3
I
II
III
IV
IX
VI
Rei dos Ventos 4
Renascença I
Renascença II
Renascença III
Renascença IV
Renascença V
Riachão I
Riachão II
Riachão IV
Riachão VI
Riachão VII
Santa Clara I
Santa Clara II
Santa Clara III
Santa Clara IV
Santa Clara V
Santa Clara VI
Santa Helena
Santo Cristo
São João
Serra de Santana I
Serra de Santana II
Serra de Santana III
SM
União dos Ventos 1
União dos Ventos 10
União dos Ventos 2
União dos Ventos 3
União dos Ventos 4
União dos Ventos 5
União dos Ventos 6
União dos Ventos 7
União dos Ventos 8
União dos Ventos 9
Ventos de Santo Uriel
Ventos de São Miguel
6584 MW
(210 UEE)
SOMENTE EMPREENDIMENTOS COM
OUTORGA
Serra do
Espinhaço
Sete Gameleiras
Tamanduá Mirim
Tanque
Teiu
Ventos do
Nordeste
14
Characteristics of Wind Power Plants in Brazil
15
Renewable Sources Connection to the Grid
•
The connection to the bulk power system is made through Renewable Generators
Collection System Sub-Grid (ICG)
•
The use of ICG and IEG represent a reduction in the grid connection costs, but also
represents an engineering challenge...
Source: L. A. Barroso, F. Porrua, R. Chabar, M. V. Pereira and B. Bezerra, Incorporating Large-Scale Renewables to the
Transmission Grid: Technical and Regulatory Issues - IEEE PES General Meeting 2009, Calgary, Canada
16
Wind Farms ICG Connection - Igapora II ICG
•
There are 13 wind farms connected to the Igapora II ICG
17
Energetic Complementarity of Hidro, Wind and Biomass
Reservoirs of hydro power plants and the
transmission grid may be used to
modulate the production of wind and
sugarcane biomass plants (no back up
natural gas generation is necessary as in
other countries)
During the dry season, wind and
biomass power plants may “return
the favor” to hydro plants
(functioning as a virtual reservoir)
18
Wind Characteristics in Brazil Northeast and Southern
19
Major Challenges for the Increase of Wind
Generation Penetration Degree in the Brazilian
Interconnected Power System
20
Major Challenges with High Wind Penetration Degree
•
The sites in Brazil with highest winds are located in the Northeast and Southern of
Brazil. These regions are characterized by low short circuit ratio (SCR) and low
inertia, often requiring network reinforcements for the correct performance of wind
generators.
•
This also provokes different power flow patterns in the presence of high wind
generation penetration degree - transmission systems must be adapted to this new
paradigm.
•
Wind generators must be capable to participate in voltage control in weak networks
efficiently, even when producing little or no active power at all.
•
The network must be prepared to handle a higher amount of generation loss, for
example, when the wind in a given area reduces very fast.
•
Normally wind generation does not contribute to the inertia of the system.
21
Ongoing Improvements Necessary to Connect
Wind Farms to Grids with High Wind
Generation Penetration Degree
22
Ongoing Improvements for High Wind Penetration Degree
•
Set Strategies for Power Reserves
 With the increase of wind generation penetration degree, a strategy must be set,
to create a power reserve in the case, for example, if the wind reduces in a fast
way.
 Scheduling and real time actions to maintain and restore system reserves.
•
Improved Wind Forecast
 The improved wind forecast will allow a more precise Power Reserve calculation,
reducing operation costs.
23
Ongoing Improvements for High Wind Penetration Degree
•
Improved Supervision of Wind Farms
 Set supervision requirements to monitor wind geration production.
 Need to set dispatch centers to concentrate operation communication among
Power System Operator and wind plants groups.
•
Harmonic Distortion and Voltage Fluctuation
 Implement electric energy quality indicators, mainly the ones for harmonic
distortions and voltage fluctuation.
24
Ongoing Improvements for High Wind Penetration Degree
•
Install Wind Generators Improved Dynamic Performance
 The technology utilized in wind generation is in fast evolution. This favors the
secure increase of wind generation penetration degree in power systems.
 The grid codes must also evolve to take advantage of this fast technology
development, in order to ensure the dynamic performance needed to the
increasing penetration of wind generation.
 The technologies currently used in modern wind turbines are the Doubly Fed
Induction Generator (DFIG) and Full-Converter.
25
Grid Codes Technical Requirements Improvements
•
Off-nominal Frequency Operation
 The wind generators must be capable to stay connected to the grid during system
under/overfrequency disturbances. This requirement is specially important in
underfrequency contingencies, when the outages of wind generators can
compromise the correct operation of the load shedding scheme.
26
Grid Codes Technical Requirements Improvements
•
Reactive Power Control of Wind Farms
 Regarding this technical requirement the DFIG and Full-Converters wind
generator technology provides a much higher reactive power generation /
absorption capacity than the specified by the Brazilian Grid Code.
 The extended range that these two technologies allow, can improve voltage
control of the system as a whole, enabling a higher penetration degree of wind
generation.
27
Grid Codes Technical Requirements Improvements
•
Synthetic Inertia
 Asynchronous machines, such as variable speed wind generators, do not
contribute to the inertia of the system (the rotating masses are not electrically
connected to the system).
 This feature is currently under development by many wind generators
manufacturers.
 Particularly in the Northeast sub-system, where it is expected a high penetration
degree of wind power in a region with low inertia, this feature may contribute to
the security of the system, possibly improving the operation of load shedding
scheme.
28
Conclusions
29
Conclusions
•
The connection of the large amount of wind generation in the BIPS predicted for this
decade in a secure way is possible, since actions are taken from now on by all
involved in the process.
•
A detailed review of the Brazilian Grid Code is being carried on in Brazilian System
Operator - ONS, to include new technical requirements that the new wind generation
technologies allow. The work is being carried by GT Eolica Task Force.
•
The control technologies available in DFIG and Full-Converter wind generators must
be explored to its maximum to allow the safe operation of the system with high wind
generation penetration degree.
•
The Brazilian Grid Code, as well as the technical requirements for next auctions,
must reflect, and take into account, the performance improvement for the network
that can be achieved with the use of the new wind generator technologies.
30
Conclusions
•
A careful network expansion planning must be done in a way to allow the safe
connection of wind farms in areas of the system with low SCR and inertia. The most
appropriate equipment to improve the performance of a system with these
characteristics is the synchronous condenser.
•
The improvement in the wind forecast models is mandatory to become wind
generation more predictable, and thus become the Power Reserve calculation more
precise. This will impact directly in the reduction of operation costs.
•
Improvement in the centralized control wind generators in the wind farms to become
the operation of the wind farms from the Control Center more friendly.
31
Thanks
[email protected] / [email protected]
+55 21 2203-9899
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