UNIT 1.1 Introduction to
Computer System
UNIT 1.1 Introduction to Computer
Number System
Computer Concepts
Operating System – DOS
Operating System – WINDOWS
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
Computer Concepts
Is an electronic device that can perform prescribed
operation given to it.
 Computer System
 Is the computer’s physical components such as the
keyboard, screen and printer
 Is the computer programs containing a set of instructions
that tell the hardware what to do.
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
Categories of Software
Application software
Includes programs written to accomplish as specific
task (or application) such as word processor,
spreadsheet or database program.
System software
Includes programs that are necessary for your
computer to run. These are programs that direct
hardware related tasks. For instance, operating
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
Basic Parts of a Computer
Classes of Memory devices:
 Primary Storage (main memory)
 Is a fast memory capable of operating
at electronic speed, where programs &
data are stores during execution.
 Examples:
 RAM (random access memory)
Used to store volatile programs & data
 ROM (read-only memory)
Is non-volatile memory
 Secondary Storage
 Input Unit
 Computer accept coded information by
means of input units, which is consists
of devices capable of reading such
 Example: keyboard, mouse, scanner
 Memory Unit
 Sole function is to store programs and
 Used when a large amount of
information have to be stores
particularly if some of these data need
not be accessed frequently.
 Example: disk
 ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
 Execution of most operation with in the
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
CU (Control Unit)
Sends control signals to other units of the
computer system.
Coordinates the operation of the computer
system to maintain its proper operation.
Output Unit
Is to return the processed result to the outside
Examples: monitor, printer
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
UNIT 1.1 Introduction to Computer
Number System
Computer Concepts
Operating System – DOS
Operating System – WINDOWS
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
Operating System
A collection of programs that supervises all
the activities that take place within a
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
Disk Operating System (DOS)
Four parts of DOS:
 Commands which need an external files to be
loaded to memory for its execution.
 DOS must locate the command on disk and
then loaded into computer memory.
 Precede the command name with directory
path to the program file.
System files
Internal Commands / Programs
External Commends / Programs
DOS Utility Programs
System Files
 command.com
 IBMBIO.com (IO.sys)
 IBMDOS.com (MSDOS.sys)
External Commands
DOS Utility Programs
 Programs used for specialized purpose.
Internal DOS Commands
 Reside in the memory as part of
 Two parts of command.com
 Resident part
 Transient part
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
 Booting, starting the computer
 Perform to program that reside the ROM
 POST (Power On Self Test)
 Check the existence of necessary peripheral devices of the computer
 Bootstrap Loader
 Short routine that loads necessary programs to boot DOS.
 DOS is the first program your computer run each time it starts.
 Bootable disk
 Is a system disk capable of starting DOS
 Ways computer can be reset/restart:
 Turn OFF the power switch then turn it ON again
 Press reset button
 Press Ctrl+Alt+Del keys at the same time
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
DOS Common Internal Commands
 Clearing the screen
 Syntax: CLS
 Changing drive
 Syntax: target_drive:
 Display the version of DOS
 Syntax: VER
 Display the current date
 Syntax: DATE or DATE mm-dd-yy
 Display current time
 Syntax: TIME or TIME hh:mm:ss
 Modifies the DOS prompt
 Syntax: A:> PROMPT desired_prompt
 Displays files inside the disk
 Syntax: DIR or DIR/option
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
DOS Common Internal Commands
 Change the filename of the existing file
 Syntax: REN old_name new_name
 Copies file’s content to another file / disk
 Syntax: COPY source_file target_file
 Syntax: A:> COPY C: filename B:
 Creating a file
 Syntax: COPYCON target_file
 Display content of a text file
 Syntax: TYPE target_file
 Delete file(s) from the disk
 Syntax: DEL target_file
 Help on DOS command options, syntax format
 Synatax: DOS_command/?
 Example: DIR/?, COPY/?
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 Working with group of files
 WILDCARD characters (* and ?), help select a group of files
 Replaces the character with the name of all matching files
 The Asterisk Wildcard (*)
 Perform file operation s on a group of files by specifying “don’t care” character positions
within the filename or extension
 The Question Mark Wildcard (?)
 Directs DOS to ignore the character in the position containing the wildcard.
 Represent only one character position.
 Redirection (>)
 To redirect the output from the terminal screen to a file or to a printer.
 Example: A:> DIR > files.dat
 A:> TYPE files.dat > prn
 Creating Batch Files
 Batch File
 Is a file that contains the name of one or more DOS commands.
 Uses BAT extension
 Autoexec.bat
 Most useful batch file
 Unique from all other batch files because each time the computer starts, DOS
automatically locates and executes the command in this special file.
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
DOS Common External Commands
 Prepares a disk for use by DOS
 Creates File Allocation Table (FAT)
 Contains info to keep track of the used, unused and bad sector
 External file: format.com
 Syntax: FORMAT disk_drive:
 Recover the data of the newly formatted disk
 External file: unformat.com
 Syntax: UNFORMAT disk_drive:
 Used to make copies of a disk
 External file: diskcopy.com
 Syntax: DISKCOPY source_drive: target_drive:
 Copies files, advance form of COPY command
 External file: xcopy.com
 Syntax: XCOPY source_drive: target_drive: /option
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
DOS Common External Commands
 Copies system ile from one disk to another
 External file: sys.com
 Syntax: SYS target_drive:
 Creates or change the volume label of disk
 External file: label.exe
 Syntax: LABEL target_drive: volume_name
 Modifies the attribute of a file
 External file: attribute.exe
 Syntax: ATTRIB option target_file
 Collects a previous DOS commands
 External file: doskey.com
 Syntax: DOSKEY
 Displays all directories present on your disk
 External file: tree.com
 Syntax: TREE
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DOS Directories
 Root directory (\)
 Internal commands in working with directories:
MD – make directory
CD – change directory
 CD\ – returns to root directory
 CD.. – returns the user to parent
RD – remove directory
 Before using RD command:
• Erase all content of the directory (files & subdirectories)
• Remove all directory & its parent or at a much higher directory
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
UNIT 1.1 Introduction to Computer
Number System
Computer Concepts
Operating System – DOS
Operating System – WINDOWS
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
Windows is a graphical operating system.
Users communicate with the computer by
choosing items or menu options & small
graphical images instead of typing hard-torecall text commands such as were found
in older operating system such as DOS. It
is greatly made easy for users to use
different software without having to learn
new commands in a new environment or
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 an input device which is cable connected to the PC through a serial port or special “
mouse port ”
 it has a mouse ball that senses the movement of the mouse
 it is implemented in Windows through:
select menu commands
move icons
size windows
start programs
choose options
 a pointer on the screen that represents the mouse is called MOUSE POINTER
moves the pointer on the screen until it is over the desired location or
quickly press & release the left mouse button
Double-click quick press the left mouse button twice
hold down the left mouse button while moving the mouse
Drag & Drop hold down the left mouse button while moving the mouse; release
the mouse button when the pointer is over the desired location
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 Icon
 a picture representing a program, disk, drive, file, folder or other items
 COMMON Desktop Setup
the entire background area of your screen; represents your working
environment when you are operating your PC
START button
as a starting point for day-to-day activities such as running programs,
opening & editing document & finding files
helps you monitor & switch between the various activities you’ll
Sound Volume Control for multimedia computing, provides a quick way of changing
the sound volume
Time Boxyou’ll see the current time displayed at the right end of the Taskbar;
double-clicking, easily reset time when wrong
My Computer
allows you to browse the disk drives on your PC
Recycle Bin
represents a temporary storage are on your hard disk for files you no
longer need; retrieve file that is in the Recycle Bin; once emptied, file
is irretrievable
Microsoft Exchange Inbox provides access to Microsoft exchange, a feature that
allows you to send & receive e-mail messages and fax
message & to view & organize all your message in one
Network Neighborhood provides a gateway to any other computers connected to your
PC as part of a network
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
Control Icon
menu of commands for moving, resizing & closing the window
Title Bar
contains the window’s name
Menu Bar
causes a drop-down menu to appear
Minimize Button
shrinks the window so that it appear only as a button on the Taskbar
Restore Button
switches the window between its maximum size & the smaller size
to which it was previously set
Close Button
closes the window
Status Bar
contains information or messages relevant to the contents or activity
in the window
Window Borders
dragging, resizing the window
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 Shutdown & Reset
to use Shut Down menu, which prepares the computer
to be turned off or restarted
Using the Programs Menu
 programs groups on the Programs menu depend on what
software has been installed on the PC
Launching from the Folder window
 by finding a program’s icon in the folder where it’s located
& double-clicking on icon
Using the RUN command
 from the Start menu
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Control Panel
provides you with a number of utilities that
allow you to set up Windows & your
computer hardware in a way that suits you
Help System
consists of step by step instructions on
hundreds of Windows tasks; there is specific
Help System for each Windows accessory
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 a group of programs consists of various utilities that can help you get the most out of
your PC.
System Tools
contain tools for managing & maintaining your hard & floppy disk
check your disk surface, files & folders for errors & to repair damaged area
Disk Defragmenter rearranges files & folders on your hard disk so that program can run faster
to use these accessories in this program group one must have a sound card
installed; any combination of text, pictures, sound & video
CD Player
play audio CD in your CD-ROM drive
Media player
play audio, video or animation files & to control settings for multimedia
hardware devices
Sound Recorder to record, play & edit sound files; microphone for live recording
Word Pad
mini word processing program
helps perform calculations
HyperTerminal Connections exchange files with a remote computer via modem or connect to
computer bulletin boards
Phone Dialer
automatically dial a telephone number from any PC w/ modem attached
Character Map
to insert special characters into documents
Note Pad
very basic word processing program
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 Organizing Files & Folders
 to create some new folders, move existing files into those folders
& perhaps rename & delete some files
 Windows Explorer
 a feature you can use to view the contents of your computer &
network drives in a hierarchical structure
 Find, Shortcuts & Timesavers, Running MS-DOS
 find from the Start menu
 creating / removing shortcut onto desktop; Shortcut is an icon
that links to a file or folder
 running MS-DOS (opening; using & customize the prompt
window; properties)
COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming
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