Nicaraguan Revolution

Nicaraguan Revolution
Background to the Revolution
 US Marine Influence 1909-1933
 Augusto Calderon Sandino
 The Guardia and Collapse of
Democratic rule
Background Con’t
FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional
 The revolution embraced Christian principles
 Satisfaction of basic needs through a new
economic development model
 Broad popular participation
 Managua Earthquake of 1972
 Excessive Corruption in Somoza Gov’t leads
to radicalization of the FSLN.
 FSLN divides into 3 parts following Somoza
Assassination of FSLN Leaders
 Prolonged Peoples War
 Proletarian Tendency
 Terceristas
Radicalization Phase
 Political Opposition to Samoza was
centered on Pedro Joaquin Chamorro.
Newspaper editor of La Prensa
 Assassination in January 1978
 Massive Resistance Begins
 Somoza Crackdown
Radicalization phase Con’t
 The harsher the crackdown on the FSLN the
more people oppose Somoza
 Sandinistas will take hostages in the national
palace in 1979
 May 1979 national wide rebellion overwhelms
the National Guard
 July 19th Managua taken..
Somoza flees.
 Daniel Ortega becomes defacto head of
 Sandinistas allow most pro-Somoza citizens
to leave
 Illiteracy drops from 53%- 12%
 Death Rate drops
 Non-aligned foreign policy aggravates
United States.
 US begins training Counter-revolutionaries
(Contras) to invade Nicaragua from Costa Rica
and Honduras as early as Fall, 1979
 Reagan adopts new policy of arming and
supporting Contras (300 million)
 Civil War ensues (60,000 killed)
 Boland Amendment
 Iran-Contra Scandal
 Election of 1990
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