Metal-free organic-inorganic aqueous flow batteries

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One of the Harvard researchers,
Michael Aziz, looking very pleased.
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Similar to both a battery and a fuel cell.
Energy stored in the electrolyte instead of the electrodes.
Capacity for energy storage is independent of power handling capacity.
High storage capacity retention per cycle.
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Uses Bromine and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS).
Metal-free molecules are larger and cheaper.
Each molecule holds two units of electric charge, allowing twice
the energy storage per unit volume over the one unit available in
metal-based flow batteries.
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The target cost of making a storage system feasible is
$100 per kW-hr.
Lead-acid batteries cost about $250 per kW-hr.
Vanadium flow batteries cost $700 per kW-hr.
It is too early to determine the total cost of a metal-free
flow battery but the cost of the electrolyte is about 1/3
that of vanadium.
Vanadium contributes $81 per kW-hr to the total cost
while AQDS/bromine costs only $27 per kW-hr.
Still much remains to be done to bring the cost down.
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