3C Media Literacy ppt - Commonwealth Prevention Alliance

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Media Literacy to
Prevent Substance Use
Brian A. Primack, MD, PhD
June 2013
Commonwealth Prevention Alliance
Media Exposure
Rideout, 2010
Media Exposure
Rideout, 2010
TV vs School in Adolescence
18000
16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
Total hours
School
TV
Rideout, 2010
Adults in the US
1200
1000
800
600
Minutes/Week
400
200
0
Watch
Screens
Talk to Their
Children
McCannon, 2001
Outline
• Part 1: Alcohol
• Part 2: Tobacco
• Part 3: Media Literacy
Outline
• Part 1: Alcohol
• Part 2: Tobacco
• Part 3: Media Literacy
TGIF
Fine Line Between Product
Placement and Incidental Use
Alcohol Is
the Leading
Cause of
Death Those
Under 25
Reaching youth better than school
8-12 year olds could name more brands of
beer than they could US presidents
Taylor, 1990
Paper or Plastic
Outline
• Part 1: Alcohol
• Part 2: Tobacco
• Part 3: Media Literacy
Costs
• Direct and indirect medical costs from one
year of smoking in the US
– $157 billion (75 direct, 82 indirect)
• Immunize the entire 3rd world
– $2 billion
“Our studies report on youngsters'
motivation for starting, their brand
preferences, as well as the starting
behavior of children as young as 5
years old.”
-- Brown and Williamson Tobacco
Company
Smoke Top Advertised Brands
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Smoke
Marlboro,
Camel, or
Newport
Youth
Adults
CDC, 2004
Smoke Contents
Compound
Hookah/Cigarette Ratio
Smoke Volume
130.2
Tar
38.5
Nicotine
2.3
CO
10.2
PAHs
19.3
Tobacco Types
40
35
30
25
Ever Used
Past 30 Days
20
15
10
5
0
Cigarettes
Hookah
* Includes little cigars, cigarillos
Cigars*
Smokeless
Hookah Smoking First Hits
• Hookah smoking tricks
– Hookah bazooka (1 million hits)
– Making clouds and hearts
• How to set up a hookah
• Hookah “facts”
Cigarette Smoking First Hits
• PfizerHealth video “how to smoke”
(Chantix advertisement)
• “MindMaster” advertisement
• “Drinking beer and smoking cigarettes”
(parody music video)
• eCigarette news report
Cigarette
(%)
Hookah
(%)
Overall
Portrayal
P
<.001
Positive
24
92
Netural
33
8
Negative
42
0
Cigarette
(%)
Hookah
(%)
P
Short-Term
Health
50
18
<.001
Long-Term
Health
44
2
<.001
Anti-Smoking
39
0
<.001
How to Quit
21
0
<.001
Outline
• Part 1: Alcohol
• Part 2: Tobacco
• Part 3: Media Literacy
Traditional Programming
Public Service Announcements
• Do have an effect
• About 50 “just say yes” for each “just say
no”
• US PSA budget is about 1/30 of England,
Canada
School Programs
• “Tar Wars” – 4th and 5th grade
• “Social influences” programs
– Grade school: effect on body
– Middle school: peer pressure, friends, family
– High school: self esteem, aspirations
HSPP
•
•
•
•
•
Peterson, AV, JNCI 2000
Curriculum for youth, 3rd-10th grades
47.25 hours total
“Social Influences” approach
How to say no, effects on body, resisting
peer influence, self esteem, etc.
• 20 school districts got the program, 20 did
not
• 94% follow up, high implementation fidelity
Results of HSPP
• No difference in smoking at 12th grade
• No difference in smoking 2 years after
high school
• No difference among boys or girls
• No difference among people of other
subgroups (such as family risk for
smoking)
Is Media Literacy Different?
Major Reasons for Media Literacy
•
•
•
•
•
Fun, creative
Someone to rebel against
Developmentally appropriate
Most effective for the ones most at risk
Empowering, not protectionist
Definition of Media Literacy
The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and
produce media messages in a variety of
forms
Principles of Media Literacy
• All media messages are constructed.
• Each medium has different characteristics, strengths and
a unique “language” of construction.
• All media messages contain embedded values and
points of view.
• People use their individual skills, beliefs, and
experiences to construct their own meanings from
messages.
• Media messages must be considered within a social,
political and economic context.
• Media and media messages can influence beliefs,
attitudes, values, behaviors and the democratic process.
?
?
?
?
?
?
450,000
400,000
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
AIDS
Alcohol
Drugs
Homicide
Motor Smoking Suicide
Vehicle
Deaths per Year in the US
450,000
400,000
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
AIDS
Alcohol
Drugs
Homicide
Motor Smoking Suicide
Vehicle
Deaths per Year in the US
Cigarette Additives that start with A or B
Acetanisole, Acetic Acid, Acetoin, Acetophenone, 6Acetoxydihydrotheaspirane, 2-Acetyl-3- Ethylpyrazine, 2-Acetyl-5Methylfuran, Acetylpyrazine, 2-Acetylpyridine, 3-Acetylpyridine, 2Acetylthiazole, Aconitic Acid, dl-Alanine, Alfalfa Extract, Allspice Extract,
Oleoresin, And Oil, Allyl Hexanoate, Allyl Ionone, Almond Bitter Oil,
Ambergris Tincture, Ammonia, Ammonium Bicarbonate, Ammonium
Hydroxide, Ammonium Phosphate Dibasic, Ammonium Sulfide, Amyl
Alcohol, Amyl Butyrate, Amyl Formate, Amyl Octanoate, alphaAmylcinnamaldehyde, Amyris Oil, trans-Anethole, Angelica Root Extract, Oil
and Seed Oil, Anise, Anise Star, Extract and Oils, Anisyl Acetate, Anisyl
Alcohol, Anisyl Formate, Anisyl Phenylacetate, Apple Juice Concentrate,
Extract, and Skins, Apricot Extract and Juice Concentrate, 1-Arginine,
Asafetida Fluid Extract And Oil, Ascorbic Acid, 1-Asparagine Monohydrate,
1-Aspartic Acid, Balsam Peru and Oil, Basil Oil, Bay Leaf, Oil and Sweet
Oil, Beeswax White, Beet Juice Concentrate, Benzaldehyde, Benzaldehyde
Glyceryl Acetal, Benzoic Acid, Benzoin, Benzoin Resin, Benzophenone,
Benzyl Alcohol, Benzyl Benzoate, Benzyl Butyrate, Benzyl Cinnamate,
Benzyl Propionate, Benzyl Salicylate, Bergamot Oil, Bisabolene, Black
Currant Buds Absolute, Borneol, Bornyl Acetate, Buchu Leaf Oil, 1,3Butanediol, 2,3-Butanedione, 1-Butanol, 2-Butanone, 4(2-Butenylidene)3,5,5-Trimethyl-2-Cyclohexen-1-One, Butter, Butter Esters, and Butter Oil,
Butyl Acetate, Butyl Butyrate, Butyl Butyryl Lactate, Butyl Isovalerate, Butyl
Phenylacetate, Butyl Undecylenate, 3-Butylidenephthalide, Butyric Acid
www.toyourhealthmedical.com
Thank You!
[email protected]
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