Norway - itslearning

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Historical facts:
1350: the Black plague, "Svartedauen" sweeps Denmark and
Scandinavia killing one third of the inhabitants
1397 - Union of Kalmar unites Denmark, Sweden and Norway
under a single monarch. Denmark is the dominant power
1536 Danish becomes the written language of Norway
1814 The Norwegian constitution was written
1814 The peace treaty of Kiel and Denmark cedes Norway to
1905 The union with Sweden disintegrates and Norway becomes
an independent kingdom
1905 The Danish prince Karl becomes King Haakon VII of Norway
1914-18 World War I and Norway remains neutral
1940 9th of April Germany occupies Norway
1945 8th of May Germany surrenders to the Allies and the Nazioccupation ends in Norway
1945- today: Indipendence - Social Democracy and the OIL
The Welfare State
The founding of Norway
King Harald Fairhair is the king who is
credited by later tradition as having
unified Norway into one kingdom.
According to the sagas, he ruled
Norway from approximately 872 to 930.
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1814 - The Norwegian constitution
 The Norwegian constitution was
inspired by the United States
Declaration of Independence in
1776 and the French revolution
in 1789 and the subsequent
U.S. and French constitutions.
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War and Occupation (1940 - 1945)
When the Germans invaded in 1940 they demanded an
end to all opposition, and acceptance of a german
occupation. These demands were refused by the King and
the government.
The fighting in southern Norway lasted three weeks, but
the struggle continued in the Narvik area until the 7th of
Then the government and the royal family crossed to
London to carry on the war.
In Norway the Germans set about reorganising the country
along Nazi lines with the help of Vidkun Quisling and NS.
But this was thwarted by the people in the worlds of sport,
the Church, education and various trades and professions
who combined into a bro adly-based resistance movement.
Towards the end of the war the resistance leadership
cooperated closely with the government in exile in London
to form a clandestine army, Milorg.
In May 1945 the Germans laid down their arms, and on 7
June the King and the government returned to a liberated
Teachers’ resistance
during the war
of Norway April 1940
-Norway was an important piece in international politics
-Massive resistance
-Teachers were not persuaded or defeated
Some facts
During Autumn -40 and Spring of -41, there was made
attempt from the enemy to break teacher’s resistance
Norway had 14 000 teachers and 12 000 of them
protested openly.
Severe consequences.
Some were summoned to labour duty at German military
March -42 1100 teachers were arrested and they got a
harsh treatment both physically and mentally
The NS threatened teachers with dismissal. This would
mean that schools would be close.
Why control teachers?
The teachers’ organisation had for many years been
voluntary and nationwide.
By ”conquering” the organisation they would reach out
to a large area.
Important for the nazis to spread their ideology and get
it implemented by the Norwegian population. This
ment that schools taught after the basic ideas of this
ideology – far away from our own.
Norwegian school
For whom?
Tekst: Margrethe Munthe
Da klokken klang, så fort vi sprang,
og ingen sto igjen og hang,
men glad og lett og rank og rett
vi var på plass med ett.
Vi sto som perler på en snor,
og ingen av oss sa et ord,
og ingen lo, men stille sto
vi sammen, to og to.
Norway is a part of Denmark
 Christian VI rules and he was a pietist
 He wants everyone to learn about the words of God in 1736 confirmation for everyone.
To get a job or get married you had to be confirmated
A result of this -children could attend school from the
age of 7 in1739
 The upper class already had private tutors/schools or
went to latin schools.
A good intention?
 The
Periodical schooling was
the solution
One of the 1st countries
that got a public schools
Lost labour
Had to pay
Period with
Learning at home
Learning in church
one school for everyone
independent of
their status and wealth
Examle of a periodical school
months a year
Learning about christianity
1800 – new society
1827 – school buildings not on farms anymore
1860 – fewer schools on farms, encyclopedic
reading books, the bond between schools
and the church becomes weaker
New law
Demands to the schools and to teaching
Longer hours
History, science and geography becomes
compulsory, books are made for each subject
Teachers got a higher status
1915: Free teaching material
Demands to how the buildings should be
Better education
1969 – everyone has the rigth to 9 years
at school
New governments – new school reforms
10 years of compulsory school
We discuss a school for everyone or for the
elite? What about room for private schools?
Norwegian students enjoy school say surveys,
the social part of it, but do they learn
proportionally with their feeling of comfort?
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