Chapter 15 Section 2 Haiti A Struggle for Democracy Haiti’s Road to Democracy 1700s – 1800s The French imported slaves to work on their plantations. However, slaves began to revolt in the 1790s. Toussaint L’Ouverture helped to end slavery in 1801, and bring about Haiti’s independence. With independence, Haiti expelled the French from Haiti, in 1804. People of Haiti are a mix of African slaves and European ancestry and are known as Creole. Creole also refers to the language spoken in Haiti, which is both French and African languages. Haiti’s Road to Democracy 1957 – 1987 There were a series of brutal dictatorships which began in 1957, with Papa Doc. There was hope that the dictatorships would come to an end when Papa Doc was removed in 1986. However, harsh dictatorships continued! Haiti’s Road to Democracy 1988 – 1991 Jean-Bertrand Aristide was elected president, in 1990. However, Haitian military took control of the government, in 1991. Because of the military takeover, many of Aristide’s supporters to flee Haiti. They were known as refugees. Haiti’s Road to Democracy 1992 – 2002 Jean-Bertrand Aristide returned to Haiti in 1994, to restore a democratic government. Aristide was elected president in 2001, but the election results were challenged. Democracy was threatened in 2002 when the economy faltered and President Aristide was asked to resign. Reviewing Key Terms Jean-Bertrand Aristide was first elected Haitian president in 1990 and most recently, in 2001. A refugee is a person who escapes his/her homeland to escape persecution or find personal safety. A person of mixed African and European descent is known as a Creole. It can also mean the Haitian language, mixing French and African languages.