Lab 9

Basic Spectrogram & Clinical Application
Lab 9
Spectrographic Features of
1st formant carries much information about
manner of articulation
– Vowel, consonant
Vowels, dipthongs & semivowels- spectral
energy is clustered in formants
– 1st 3 or 4 being important for ecognition
Vowel sounds appear on spectrograms as
bands of energy that run horizontally
Spectrographic Features of
All English vowels can be recognized on
the basis of the fist 2 formants (F1; F2)
Thus each vowel can be represented as
the relative position of the fist two
F1= Variation in TONGUE HEIGHT
F2= Variation in TONGUE
ADVANCEMENT (front -back)
Two Formant Spectrograms: Front, Back & Central Vowels
Phonetic Quality of Vowels
Front Vowels:
– Larger separation between F1 & F2
– Small F2 & F3 separation
– Frequency of F1= Tongue height
Back Vowels:
– Small separation between F1 & F2
– Large separation between F2 & F3
Central vowels:
– Formant frequencies are evenly spaced
– Moderate jaw opening causes mid-range
F1/F2 Plots of Vowels (Vowel Quadrangle)
Vowel Spectrograms (Wide Band)
Laboratory: Vowel Formants
Frequency values of vowel formants
depend on the length and shape of the
vocal tract
– Vocal tract length & configuration
– Accuracy of production
Part I: Measuring formant frequencies
– Wide band spectrogram of “She saw ten
• Identify the 4 vowels& formant bands
• Why do formant bands change across the
• Measure F1 and F2 for each vowel
– Half of formants thickness
– Measure at stable portion of vowel and midpoint
– Norms compared to measured values
– Measure F1 & F2 of the vowels and draw
in on example
Part II: Graphic analysis of formants
– Use spectrograms of vowels provided
• Adult male
• Adult female
• Child
– Measure F1 & F2 of each vowel
– Make a spectrogram of all the vowels
Part II: Continued
– Graph #1- plot the formant frequencies of the:
• Female in RED
• Male in BLUE
• Child in GREEN
– Explain the relationship between what you just
plotted and a standard vowel quad
– Connect all the /i/ and /æ/ points from each
– Plot F1 & F2 for the articulatory disordered patient
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