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Unit 3: Outbreak of WWI
February 15, 2013
THIS DAY IN HISTORY
■ 1. Which of the following
happened in 1898?
■ a) George Washington gave
1796
his Farewell Address
■ b) Teddy Roosevelt fought in
the Spanish American War.
■ c) James Monroe issued the
Monroe Doctrine.
1823
■ d) Seward purchased the
terrirory of Alaska. 1867
■ Which statement best describes President
Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy position
toward Latin America in the early 1900’s?
A. The United States should reduce its involvement
in Latin American affairs.
B. The Monroe Doctrine permits the United States
to intervene actively in the affairs of Latin
American nations.
C. Latin American nations should form an
organization to help them achieve political and
economic stability.
D. The United States should give large amounts of
financial aid to help the poor of Latin America.
■ One important conclusion that can be drawn as a
result of the United States experience in both the
Spanish-American War (1898) and the Persian Gulf
War (1991) is that
A. only the President should decide issues of war and
peace
B. the media are a powerful influence in shaping
American public opinion toward war
C. the public has little confidence in the ability of the
American military
D. international organizations play a decisive role in
determining the outcome of a war
During the Gulf War, favorable coverage of the war by the American press, coupled
with the lack of actual “on the ground” combat helped to shape public perception
and support of the war effort.
■ Why did the United States formulate the
Open Door policy toward China?
A. to develop democratic institutions and
practices in China
B. to support Japanese efforts to industrialize
China
C. to establish a military presence on the
Chinese mainland
D. to prevent a European and Japanese
monopoly of Chinese trade and markets
The “Open Door Policy” was a declaration by the United States that called for equal, unrestricted
trade with China by all nations.
■ Involvement in the Spanish-American War,
acquisition of Hawaii, and introduction of the
Open Door policy in China were actions taken by
the United States Government to
A. gain overseas markets and sources of raw
materials
B. establish military alliances with other nations
C. begin the policy of manifest destiny
D. support isolationist forces in Congress
The territories acquired in the Spanish-American war (Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines) as well as the
annexation of Hawaii served as sources of raw materials as well as markets for finished goods. At the same
time, the United States was just beginning to expand her reach and trade into the orient.
■ The principle that the United States has the
right to act as the "policeman of the Western
Hemisphere" and intervene in the internal
affairs of Latin American nations was
established by the
A. Good Neighbor policy
B. Open Door policy
C. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
D. Marshall Plan
■Essential Question:
–What caused World War I?
–Why was the U.S. unable to
remain neutral in this conflict?
■Warm-Up Question:
–How did the Spanish-American
War impact the United States?
–How did Theodore Roosevelt
“build” the Panama Canal?
The Outbreak of World War I
■ The outbreak of WWI in 1914 was a
test for America’s new foreign policy
–The USA was an imperial power
after the Spanish-American War
–The U.S. built the Panama Canal,
used the Roosevelt Corollary to
control Latin America, & created
the Open Door Policy in China
–But, the USA maintained a policy
of neutrality in European affairs
What caused World War I?
MILITARISM
ALLIANCES
IMPERIALISM
NATIONALISM
Militarism
Britain, France, Germany
developed modern armies
& navies, leading to an
arms race in Europe
By the 20th century, European powers
began to glorify war as a means to
accomplish their goals
Germany,
Austria- nations
England,
&
As European
gainedFrance,
imperial
Hungary, colonies,
& Italy made
Russia
up the
competition
ledmade
to rivalries
up the Triple Alliance
Triple Entente
Alliances &
Imperialism
Increasing militarism led
nations to form powerful
alliances in case of war
Pre-War Alliance Network
Feelings of nationalism led strong countries to
want to gain more power & led many weaker
Nationalism
was strong
nations to want
to re-define their boundaries
in the Balkans, where
Serbia hoped to unite
with Austrian Slavs
In 1914, Serbian
terrorists assassinated
Austrian Archduke
Nationalism
Franz Ferdinand
The assassination sparked World War I
The Eastern Front
The Western
The Allied
Front Powers
The Central Powers
The Great War quickly became the
first “world war”
??
American Neutrality
■When World War I began in 1914,
President Woodrow Wilson declared
U.S. neutrality
But by 1917,
the USA entered
WWI as an
Allied Power…
WHY?
Group Activity:
Why the USA entered WWI
■In teams, determine why the USA
entered World War I in 1917:
–Examine the documents provided &
complete the chart in your notes
–After examining all documents, try to
group the documents into categories
–When finished, create a one sentence
thesis that explains why the USA
entered WWI…be prepared to discuss
America
Enters
the
War
Americans were killed when the
■ By 1917,
theSussex,
USA entered
Lusitania,
& ArabicWWI
sank as
an Allied Power because:
–German unrestricted submarine
warfare violated U.S. free trade
–Germany’s Zimmerman Telegram
offered to return the Mexican
Cession if Mexico invaded the USA
–President Wilson hoped to stop
the Central Powers & make the
world “safe for democracy”
■ The USA declared war in April 1917
Here are the documents
for the class activity
Document A
Document B
Intercepted telegram from
Germany to Mexico, 1917
Document C
U.S. War Loans
1914—1917:
To the Allied
Powers:
$2.25 billion
To the Central
Powers:
$27 million
Document D
U.S. Losses to German
Submarine Warfare, 1916-1918
Document E
The German officer knocked at the door…
The officer ordered the soldiers to break
down the door, which two of them did.
The peasant came and asked what they
were doing. His hands were tied behind
his back, and he was shot at once without
a moment’s delay. The wife came out with
a little sucking child. One of the Germans
took a rifle and struck her a tremendous
blow with the butt on the head. Another took his bayonet
and fixed it and thrust it through the child. He then put his
rifle on his shoulder with the child up on it, its little arms
stretched out once or twice. The officers ordered the house
to be set on fire…The man, his wife and child were thrown
on top.
(James Bryce, head of the Committee on Alleged German
Atrocities as reported to British Parliament, 1915)
Document F
We shall fight for the things which we have
always carried nearest our hearts,—for
democracy, for the right of those who submit
to authority to have a voice in their own
Governments, for the rights and liberties of
small nations, for a universal dominion of right
by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring
peace and safety to all nations and make the
world itself at last free…The world must be
made safe for democracy.
(President Wilson's war message, April, 1917)
Document G
Document H
To whom does war bring prosperity? Not to the soldier who
for the compensation of $16 per month shoulders his
musket and goes into the trench, there to shed his blood
and to die if necessary; not to the mother who weeps at the
death of her brave boy; not to the little children who shiver
with cold; nor the millions of mothers and daughters who
carry broken hearts to their graves. War brings prosperity to
the stock gambler on Wall Street – to those who are already
in possession of more wealth than can be enjoyed…Their
object in having war and in preparing for war is to make
money. The enormous profits of
munition manufacturers, stockbrokers, and bond dealers
must be still further increased by our entrance into the war.
(Senator George Norris, in response to the
U.S. declaration of war, April 1917)
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