The Byzantine Empire - History with Mr. Bayne

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The Byzantine Empire,
Russia and Eastern
Europe
Byzantine Empire Day 1
• High Middle Ages Test
• Textbook worksheet
• Notes on Constantinople, Justinian, and
Byzantine Achievements
• Terms
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine Empire and Russia
from about 300 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) by
a)explaining the establishment of Constantinople as the capital of the Eastern
Roman Empire,
b)identifying Justinian and his contributions, including the codification of
Roman law, and describing the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and
economy, and
c)characterizing Byzantine art and architecture and the preservation of Greek
and Roman traditions on a book worksheet and terms worksheet.
Warm-up, Day 2
1. Who legalized Christianity and moved the capital of
the Roman Empire to Byzantium? Constantine
2. Constantinople was a center of trade between the
Blackseas?
Mediterranean and __________
3. Constantinople was easily defended because it was
built on a__________.
peninsula
4. Who reconquered much of the Roman Empire and
expanded trade? Justinian
5. What set of Byzantine laws were later adopted by
European monarchs? Justinian’s Code
Hagia Sophia
6. What is the name of this former Christian Church?
7. Religious images are called ___________.
icons
Byzantine Empire Day 2
• Warm-up, Day 2
• Work on book worksheet, terms, and map (15
minutes)
• Notes on the split in the church
• Schism chart (continue work on terms, book
worksheet, map, begin review-15 minutes)
• Notes on the Crusades and the fall of
Constantinople, and the influence of the
Byzantine Empire on Russia
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine Empire and Russia from about 300 to
1000 A.D. (C.E.) by explaining conflicts among Eurasian powers, including the Crusades, and the fall
of Constantinople; explaining disputes that led to the split between the Roman Catholic Church
and the Greek Orthodox Church; mapping and assessing the impact of Byzantine influence and
trade on Russia and Eastern Europe.
Warm-up, Day 3
1. Which Church was headed by the Pope in Rome, had
celibate priests, and used Latin? Eastern or Western?
Western
2. What city was attacked during the Fourth Crusade?
Constantinople
3. Which group conquered and ended the Byzantine
Empire in 1453? Ottoman Turks
4. Constantinople became capital of the Ottoman
Istanbul
Empire and was renamed ___________.
5. The Byzantine empire influenced Eastern Europe and
Russia
_________through
trade and missionaries
St. Cyril
6. Who invented this writing?
7. The Eastern Orthodox Church was headed by the
Constantinople
Greek and was centered in_________.
Patriarch
______, spoke _____,
Byzantine Empire Day 3
• Warm-up
• Notes on invaders (Mongols and Magyars)
and Ivan the Great
• Finish Packet
• Game?
• The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine Empire and
Russia from about 300 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) by explaining conflicts among
Eurasian powers, including the Mongol conquests and describing the
emergence of the nation-state of Russia
Byzantine Empire Day 4
• Warm-up
• Test on Byzantine Empire
• Movie?Game?
• The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine Empire
and Russia from about 300 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) by taking a test
Warm-up, Day 4
1. Which information correctly completes this table?
A. Column 1—Centered in Constantinople
B. Column 1—Accepted the authority of the Patriarch
C. Column 2—Used Greek language in liturgy
3. The practice of Orthodox Christianity in Russia was
primarily the result of contact with the —
A.
B.
C.
D.
Islamic Empire
Persian Empire
Mongol Empire
Byzantine Empire
4. One of the main accomplishments of Justinian
was —
A. making Christianity the official religion of the
Roman Empire
B. stopping the Islamic conquest of Western
European territories
C. reconquering territory that had once belonged to
the Roman Empire
D. defeating an invading army of Ottoman Turks
5. Which factor was most important about the
site of Constantinople?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Mountains for stone building materials
Peninsula for easily constructed defenses
River valley to provide rich farmland
Desert oasis to supply fresh water
6. In the 14th and 15th centuries, most goods
arrived in northern Europe from
Constantinople after crossing the —
A. Black Sea
B. Indian Ocean
C. Red Sea
D. Pacific Ocean
7. Which city is described by these facts?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Rome
Moscow
Jerusalem
Constantinople
8. The Code of Justinian later served as the
basis for most —
A.
B.
C.
D.
Indian religious ceremonies
African trade agreements
European legal systems
Chinese government principles
9. The information in this chart could best be used to
explain why —
A. Islamic influence became dominant in Russia
B. Russia had a long history of religious freedom
C. Russia often attacked the Byzantine Empire
D. Russia was strongly influenced by Byzantine culture
11. Which empire is described by these
characteristics?
A. Persian Empire
B. Ottoman Empire
C. Byzantine Empire
D. Mongol Empire
Medieval Times
• The time between the fall of Rome in the
West and the Renaissance (@ 1000 years)
• Byzantine Empire: advanced and prosperous
• Western Europe: state of decline and war
Constantine
• Moved the capital of the
Eastern Roman Empire to
Byzantium (present-day
Istanbul, Turkey)
• Renamed it Constantinople
• Legalized Christianity
• The Eastern Roman Empire
became the Byzantine
Empire
Why was Constantinople chosen
as the capital?
• center of trade due to its location on a strait
between the Black and Mediterranean Seas
• built on a peninsula fortified with land and
sea walls and protected by the Eastern
frontier
• distant from Germanic invasions in West
Justinian
• Conquered many former Roman territories
• Expanded trade
• Codified Roman laws
“Justinian’s Code”
• These law codes were
later adopted by
European kings
Byzantine Culture
• Greco-Roman traditions continued to
flourish.
• Greek was the official language (as
contrasted to Latin in the west)
Byzantine Art and
Architecture
• Architecture - domed buildings like the
Hagia Sophia (Christian Church)
Constantinople and the Hagia Sophia
• Mosaics: Pictures made up of thousands of
tiny glass, ceramic, and stone tiles
• Icons: Religious
images
• Paintings and
mosaics often used
gold paint; the
pictures seemed to
glow.
Icons
Libraries:
• Byzantine monks
copied and illustrated
ancient Greek and
Roman works,
preserving them for
future generations.
Schism
• Cultural and political differences between the
East and the West caused the Christian
Church to divide (schism).
Western Church
• Centered in Rome
• Latin used in the liturgy (church
service)
• Pope eventually accepted as the
leader
• Practices such as celibacy
eventually accepted (priests could
not marry).
• Became known as the Roman
Catholic Church
Eastern Church
•
•
•
•
Centered in Constantinople
Used Greek in the liturgy
Headed by Patriarch
Priests continued to be
allowed to marry.
• Became known as the
Eastern Orthodox Church
(Greek Orthodox Church)
Byzantine Culture
Crusades
• In 1093, Byzantine emperor
Alexis I sent a letter to the
West asking for help against
the Muslim Turks (Seljuks)
who were threatening
Constantinople and attacking
Christian Pilgrims on their
way to Jerusalem.
Alexis I
Crusades
• Pope Urban (of Rome) called for a crusade
or holy war to regain control of the Holy
Lands (holy sites in and around Jerusalem).
Crusaders Attack
• In 1204 Constantinople (a Christian city) was
sacked (attacked, burned, and looted) by Christian
Crusaders from the West.
• The Crusades weakened the Byzantine Empire, but
did not put an end to it.
Ottoman Conquest
• Ottoman Turks
(Muslims)
conquered what
remained of the
Byzantine Empire
in 1453.
• Constantinople was
renamed Istanbul and
became capital of the
Ottoman Empire
Decline of the Byzantine Empire
Influence of Byzantine Empire on
Russia and Eastern Europe
• Russia and Eastern
Europe were influenced by
the Byzantine Empire
through trade and Christian
missionaries.
• Due to a lack of geographic
barriers, they were
frequently invaded by
nomadic groups
• Orthodox Christianity
• Art (icons) and
architecture (onion
domes).
• Cyrillic Alphabet
Saint Cyril
• Missionary who adapted the Greek alphabet
to Slavic languages of Eastern Europe and
Russia (so that they could read the Bible).
Cyrillic Alphabet
• The Cyrillic alphabet gave the
Slavs a written language and
helped spread Christianity in
Russia and Eastern Europe.
Russian Orthodox Church
• Byzantine
influence is
seen here in
art, in
architecture
(onion
domes), and
religion.
Russian Icons
• St Nicholas
• “Santa Claus”
Byzantine Empire Influences
Russia
Invaders of Russia and
Eastern Europe
•
•
•
•
Vikings
Magyars
Mongols
Ottoman Turks
Vikings
•Seafaring invaders from Scandinavia who
settled in Russia
•At first they made slaves of the local people
(Slavs), but eventually adopted slavic culture.
• set up trade routes along
rivers between the Black
and Baltic Seas.
• sailed to from the Baltic to
Constantinople and
trading amber and other
goods.
Vikings
Magyars
• Nomadic herders
from Central Asia
who invaded Europe
• Settled in Hungary
Mongols
• Fierce nomads from
Central Asia
• Invaded Russia, China,
and Eastern Europe
and Southwest Asia.
Mongol Empire
• Created an Empire
Ivan the Great
• Freed Moscow
from the Mongols
• United and
expanded the
Russian Nation
• Took the title of “Tsar” (from “Caesar”)
• Ruled with absolute power
Ivan the Great
• Appointed
himself
protector of the
Orthodox
Church
West
East
Name of
Religion
Roman Catholic
Eastern Orthodox
Language
Latin
Greek
Center
Rome
Constantinople
Marriage of
priests
Priests celibate
Priests continued
(eventually accepted) to marry
Religious
Leader
Pope eventually
accepted
Patriarch (chosen
by emperor)
• These four horses (bronze) were
made for Alexander the Great.
The Roman Emperor August had
them shipped from Alexandria to
Rome.
The Emperor Constantine had the
horses transferred to Constantinople
where they were shown in the
Hippodrome.
The Venitians (Fourth Crusade,
1204) took the horses as loot and
displayed them before the Church
of San Marco in Venice.
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