The Byzantine Empire, Russia and Eastern Europe Byzantine Empire Day 1 • High Middle Ages Test • Textbook worksheet • Notes on Constantinople, Justinian, and Byzantine Achievements • Terms The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine Empire and Russia from about 300 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) by a)explaining the establishment of Constantinople as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, b)identifying Justinian and his contributions, including the codification of Roman law, and describing the expansion of the Byzantine Empire and economy, and c)characterizing Byzantine art and architecture and the preservation of Greek and Roman traditions on a book worksheet and terms worksheet. Warm-up, Day 2 1. Who legalized Christianity and moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium? Constantine 2. Constantinople was a center of trade between the Blackseas? Mediterranean and __________ 3. Constantinople was easily defended because it was built on a__________. peninsula 4. Who reconquered much of the Roman Empire and expanded trade? Justinian 5. What set of Byzantine laws were later adopted by European monarchs? Justinian’s Code Hagia Sophia 6. What is the name of this former Christian Church? 7. Religious images are called ___________. icons Byzantine Empire Day 2 • Warm-up, Day 2 • Work on book worksheet, terms, and map (15 minutes) • Notes on the split in the church • Schism chart (continue work on terms, book worksheet, map, begin review-15 minutes) • Notes on the Crusades and the fall of Constantinople, and the influence of the Byzantine Empire on Russia The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine Empire and Russia from about 300 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) by explaining conflicts among Eurasian powers, including the Crusades, and the fall of Constantinople; explaining disputes that led to the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church; mapping and assessing the impact of Byzantine influence and trade on Russia and Eastern Europe. Warm-up, Day 3 1. Which Church was headed by the Pope in Rome, had celibate priests, and used Latin? Eastern or Western? Western 2. What city was attacked during the Fourth Crusade? Constantinople 3. Which group conquered and ended the Byzantine Empire in 1453? Ottoman Turks 4. Constantinople became capital of the Ottoman Istanbul Empire and was renamed ___________. 5. The Byzantine empire influenced Eastern Europe and Russia _________through trade and missionaries St. Cyril 6. Who invented this writing? 7. The Eastern Orthodox Church was headed by the Constantinople Greek and was centered in_________. Patriarch ______, spoke _____, Byzantine Empire Day 3 • Warm-up • Notes on invaders (Mongols and Magyars) and Ivan the Great • Finish Packet • Game? • The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine Empire and Russia from about 300 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) by explaining conflicts among Eurasian powers, including the Mongol conquests and describing the emergence of the nation-state of Russia Byzantine Empire Day 4 • Warm-up • Test on Byzantine Empire • Movie?Game? • The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Byzantine Empire and Russia from about 300 to 1000 A.D. (C.E.) by taking a test Warm-up, Day 4 1. Which information correctly completes this table? A. Column 1—Centered in Constantinople B. Column 1—Accepted the authority of the Patriarch C. Column 2—Used Greek language in liturgy 3. The practice of Orthodox Christianity in Russia was primarily the result of contact with the — A. B. C. D. Islamic Empire Persian Empire Mongol Empire Byzantine Empire 4. One of the main accomplishments of Justinian was — A. making Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire B. stopping the Islamic conquest of Western European territories C. reconquering territory that had once belonged to the Roman Empire D. defeating an invading army of Ottoman Turks 5. Which factor was most important about the site of Constantinople? A. B. C. D. Mountains for stone building materials Peninsula for easily constructed defenses River valley to provide rich farmland Desert oasis to supply fresh water 6. In the 14th and 15th centuries, most goods arrived in northern Europe from Constantinople after crossing the — A. Black Sea B. Indian Ocean C. Red Sea D. Pacific Ocean 7. Which city is described by these facts? A. B. C. D. Rome Moscow Jerusalem Constantinople 8. The Code of Justinian later served as the basis for most — A. B. C. D. Indian religious ceremonies African trade agreements European legal systems Chinese government principles 9. The information in this chart could best be used to explain why — A. Islamic influence became dominant in Russia B. Russia had a long history of religious freedom C. Russia often attacked the Byzantine Empire D. Russia was strongly influenced by Byzantine culture 11. Which empire is described by these characteristics? A. Persian Empire B. Ottoman Empire C. Byzantine Empire D. Mongol Empire Medieval Times • The time between the fall of Rome in the West and the Renaissance (@ 1000 years) • Byzantine Empire: advanced and prosperous • Western Europe: state of decline and war Constantine • Moved the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantium (present-day Istanbul, Turkey) • Renamed it Constantinople • Legalized Christianity • The Eastern Roman Empire became the Byzantine Empire Why was Constantinople chosen as the capital? • center of trade due to its location on a strait between the Black and Mediterranean Seas • built on a peninsula fortified with land and sea walls and protected by the Eastern frontier • distant from Germanic invasions in West Justinian • Conquered many former Roman territories • Expanded trade • Codified Roman laws “Justinian’s Code” • These law codes were later adopted by European kings Byzantine Culture • Greco-Roman traditions continued to flourish. • Greek was the official language (as contrasted to Latin in the west) Byzantine Art and Architecture • Architecture - domed buildings like the Hagia Sophia (Christian Church) Constantinople and the Hagia Sophia • Mosaics: Pictures made up of thousands of tiny glass, ceramic, and stone tiles • Icons: Religious images • Paintings and mosaics often used gold paint; the pictures seemed to glow. Icons Libraries: • Byzantine monks copied and illustrated ancient Greek and Roman works, preserving them for future generations. Schism • Cultural and political differences between the East and the West caused the Christian Church to divide (schism). Western Church • Centered in Rome • Latin used in the liturgy (church service) • Pope eventually accepted as the leader • Practices such as celibacy eventually accepted (priests could not marry). • Became known as the Roman Catholic Church Eastern Church • • • • Centered in Constantinople Used Greek in the liturgy Headed by Patriarch Priests continued to be allowed to marry. • Became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church (Greek Orthodox Church) Byzantine Culture Crusades • In 1093, Byzantine emperor Alexis I sent a letter to the West asking for help against the Muslim Turks (Seljuks) who were threatening Constantinople and attacking Christian Pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem. Alexis I Crusades • Pope Urban (of Rome) called for a crusade or holy war to regain control of the Holy Lands (holy sites in and around Jerusalem). Crusaders Attack • In 1204 Constantinople (a Christian city) was sacked (attacked, burned, and looted) by Christian Crusaders from the West. • The Crusades weakened the Byzantine Empire, but did not put an end to it. Ottoman Conquest • Ottoman Turks (Muslims) conquered what remained of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. • Constantinople was renamed Istanbul and became capital of the Ottoman Empire Decline of the Byzantine Empire Influence of Byzantine Empire on Russia and Eastern Europe • Russia and Eastern Europe were influenced by the Byzantine Empire through trade and Christian missionaries. • Due to a lack of geographic barriers, they were frequently invaded by nomadic groups • Orthodox Christianity • Art (icons) and architecture (onion domes). • Cyrillic Alphabet Saint Cyril • Missionary who adapted the Greek alphabet to Slavic languages of Eastern Europe and Russia (so that they could read the Bible). Cyrillic Alphabet • The Cyrillic alphabet gave the Slavs a written language and helped spread Christianity in Russia and Eastern Europe. Russian Orthodox Church • Byzantine influence is seen here in art, in architecture (onion domes), and religion. Russian Icons • St Nicholas • “Santa Claus” Byzantine Empire Influences Russia Invaders of Russia and Eastern Europe • • • • Vikings Magyars Mongols Ottoman Turks Vikings •Seafaring invaders from Scandinavia who settled in Russia •At first they made slaves of the local people (Slavs), but eventually adopted slavic culture. • set up trade routes along rivers between the Black and Baltic Seas. • sailed to from the Baltic to Constantinople and trading amber and other goods. Vikings Magyars • Nomadic herders from Central Asia who invaded Europe • Settled in Hungary Mongols • Fierce nomads from Central Asia • Invaded Russia, China, and Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia. Mongol Empire • Created an Empire Ivan the Great • Freed Moscow from the Mongols • United and expanded the Russian Nation • Took the title of “Tsar” (from “Caesar”) • Ruled with absolute power Ivan the Great • Appointed himself protector of the Orthodox Church West East Name of Religion Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox Language Latin Greek Center Rome Constantinople Marriage of priests Priests celibate Priests continued (eventually accepted) to marry Religious Leader Pope eventually accepted Patriarch (chosen by emperor) • These four horses (bronze) were made for Alexander the Great. The Roman Emperor August had them shipped from Alexandria to Rome. The Emperor Constantine had the horses transferred to Constantinople where they were shown in the Hippodrome. The Venitians (Fourth Crusade, 1204) took the horses as loot and displayed them before the Church of San Marco in Venice.