ICOPHAI 1 - University of Nairobi



a *, J.M.Mbaria

a , D.W.Gakuya

a , P.K.Gathumbi

a , J.D.Kabasa

b , S.G.Kiama

a a University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya b Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

    Malaria is the single most cause of ill health, death and poverty in sub-saharan Africa There are as many as 300 m acute cases of malaria worldwide each year, resulting in 1m deaths 90% of these deaths occur in sub-saharan Africa, and majority of victims are children aged less than 5 yrs Malaria is a major obstacle to social economic growth in Africa, accounting for 40% of public health expenditure Nguta et al, 2010. Journal of Ethno pharmacology

    In Kenya, 22M people are at risk, 70% of them are in rural areas About 34,000 Kenyan children die every year from malaria compared to a total estimate of 42,000 people dead 80% of people worldwide are estimated to use herbal remedies against common diseases including malaria.

However, few data are available on their safety.

 The current study was designed to evaluate the acute toxicity of crude plant extracts used against malaria in Kenya in larvae

Artemia salina

Study site (Msambweni district)

  Preparation of extracts Aqueous Organic (CHCL 3 /MeOH, 1:1) –Cold maceration  Acute toxicity determination The procedure of Meyer et al (1982), was adopted for LC50 determination

Cytotoxicity of organic crude extracts 4.5% (Non toxic) 4.5%(Weak) 51% (Strong) 40% (Moderate) Non toxic Weak Moderate Strong

Toxicity of aqueous crude extracts(n=45) Non toxic Weak Moderate Strong Strong (20%) Non toxic (24%) Weak (16%) Moderate (40%)

    Only 24% of the aqueous crude extracts used against malaria in Msambweni, Kenya are safe Only 4.5% of organic extracts screened were found be safe in brine shrimp lethality assay Majority of crude extracts could not make safe antimalarials Further antimalarial and phytochemical work is underway

     Carnegie Corporation of New York through RISE-AFNNET (for funding) RISE-AFNNET colleagues ICOPHAI 2011 organizing committee for a travel grant and invitation University of Nairobi (Granting paid leave) ICOPHAI 2011 Participants (For their attention).