a *, J.M.Mbaria
a , D.W.Gakuya
a , P.K.Gathumbi
a , J.D.Kabasa
b , S.G.Kiama
a a University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya b Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
Malaria is the single most cause of ill health, death and poverty in sub-saharan Africa There are as many as 300 m acute cases of malaria worldwide each year, resulting in 1m deaths 90% of these deaths occur in sub-saharan Africa, and majority of victims are children aged less than 5 yrs Malaria is a major obstacle to social economic growth in Africa, accounting for 40% of public health expenditure Nguta et al, 2010. Journal of Ethno pharmacology
In Kenya, 22M people are at risk, 70% of them are in rural areas About 34,000 Kenyan children die every year from malaria compared to a total estimate of 42,000 people dead 80% of people worldwide are estimated to use herbal remedies against common diseases including malaria.
However, few data are available on their safety.
The current study was designed to evaluate the acute toxicity of crude plant extracts used against malaria in Kenya in larvae
Study site (Msambweni district)
Preparation of extracts Aqueous Organic (CHCL 3 /MeOH, 1:1) –Cold maceration Acute toxicity determination The procedure of Meyer et al (1982), was adopted for LC50 determination
Cytotoxicity of organic crude extracts 4.5% (Non toxic) 4.5%(Weak) 51% (Strong) 40% (Moderate) Non toxic Weak Moderate Strong
Toxicity of aqueous crude extracts(n=45) Non toxic Weak Moderate Strong Strong (20%) Non toxic (24%) Weak (16%) Moderate (40%)
Only 24% of the aqueous crude extracts used against malaria in Msambweni, Kenya are safe Only 4.5% of organic extracts screened were found be safe in brine shrimp lethality assay Majority of crude extracts could not make safe antimalarials Further antimalarial and phytochemical work is underway
Carnegie Corporation of New York through RISE-AFNNET (for funding) RISE-AFNNET colleagues ICOPHAI 2011 organizing committee for a travel grant and invitation University of Nairobi (Granting paid leave) ICOPHAI 2011 Participants (For their attention).