MODAL VERBS. (TOP MARKS 1º BACHILLERATO UNIT 6 p. 70, 123) Burlington Books MODAL VERBS: CHARACTERISTICS. 1.- They have the same form for singular and plural. ex: they can swim / he can swim. 2.- They don´t need an auxiliary to form interogative and/or negative. ex: they can´t swim; can he swim? 3.- They are followed by infinitive without “to” but “have to”, “ought to” and “need to”. ex: I could swim 4.- They are followed by another verb. ex: She could read French. 5.- Some of them have several meanings. ex: I could read Chinese (ability) ex: could you pass me the water? (request) MODAL VERBS. MODAL EXAMPLES USES CAN (PRESENT) BE ABLE TO Mary can run very fast. Mary is able to run fast. ABILITY (PRESENT) COULD (PAST) She could run very fast when she was a child ABILITY (PAST) BE ABLE TO (REST OF TENSES) She will be able to run fast in two months ABILITY (OTHER TENSES) MODAL VERBS. MODAL EXAMPLES USES CAN -PUEDES- Can I call you tonight? REQUEST COULD -PODRÍASMAY -PUEDO- Could you help me with the suitcases? May I join this team? POLITE REQUEST WOULD -QUIERES- Would you open the window? Would you like something to drink? FORMAL REQUEST OFFER COULD -PODRÍAS- You could exercise and eat healthier food POLITE SUGGESTION MODAL VERBS. MODAL EXAMPLES USES CAN Women´s sports can be exciting to watch POSSIBILITY (EXITS) COULD It could be dangerous for women to compete with men. POSSIBILITY (+) MIGHT She might win the gold medal in the competition POSSIBILITY (-) MODAL VERBS. MODAL EXAMPLES USES MUST (PRESENT) (internal obligation) HAVE TO (PRESENT) (external obligation) -TENER QUE- You must try hard for the match. I have to buy the tickets today OBLIGATION/ NECESSITY (PRESENT) HAD TO (PAST) (internal/external obligation) -TENER QUE- You had to try hard OBLIGATION/ for the match. NECESSITY I had to buy the tikets (PAST) yesterday NEED TO (PRESENT) - NECESITAR(NO ES MODAL) You need to practise harder. OBLIGATION/ NECESSITY (PRESENT) NEEDED TO (PAST) - NECESITAR- You needed to practise harder. OBLIGATION/ NECESSITY (PAST) IT NEEDS AUXILIARY MODAL VERBS. MODAL EXAMPLES USES NEEDN´T -NO TENER QUE- You needn´t bring anything to the party LACK OF OBLIGATION I don´t have to get up early tomorrow. LACK OF OBLIGATION (MODAL,SÓLO NEGATIVA) DON´T HAVE TO -NO TENER QUE- MODAL EXAMPLE USES MUST She´s got a great job. She must be very happy CERTAINTY THAT SOMETHING IS TRUE/ DEDUCTION MODAL EXAMPLE USES MUSTN´T You mustn´t exceed the speed limit PROHIBITION IT NEEDS AUXILIARY MODAL VERBS. MODAL EXAMPLE USES SHOULD (shouldn´t) -DEBERÍAOUGHT TO (ought not to) -DEBERÍA- You should try and get on well with your siblings. ADVISE / OPINION You ought to warm up before training. PERFECT MODALS MODAL PERFECT EXAMPLES USES MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Linda has arrived late. She must have been in a traffic jam. Certainty that something was true. Expresa una conclusion lógica sobre un hecho pasado. MAY/MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE She may/might have taken the wrong bus. A guess about a past action Se usa para hacer una suposición de algo pasado. COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE He couldn´t have gone to the concert because he was doing a test. Certainty that something did not happen. Indica que se pudo haber hecho algo en el pasado pero que finalmente no se hizo. WOULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE I would have gone to the party, but it was too busy Willingness to have done something but in fact could not. Indica que se quiso haber hecho algo en el pasado, pero no se pudo debido a factores o circunstancias externas. PERFECT MODALS. MODAL PERFECT EXAMPLES USES SHOULD/OUGHT TO HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE You should / ought to have warned me earlier Criticism or regret after an event. Podemos tanto quejarnos de lo ocurrido en el pasado, como lamentarnos de que no se haya cumplido lo que esperábamos. SHOULDN´T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE He shouldn´t have forgotten about her birthday. Criticism after an event. Expresa nuestra opinión crítica sobre un hecho pasado indicando que no debería haber ocurrido. NEEDN´T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE You needen´t have brought anything to my party An unnecesary action in the past. Indica que no había necesidad de hacer lo que se hizo.