modal verbs i

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MODAL VERBS.
(TOP MARKS 1º BACHILLERATO UNIT 6 p. 70, 123)
Burlington Books
MODAL VERBS: CHARACTERISTICS.
1.- They have the same form for singular and plural.
ex: they can swim / he can swim.
2.- They don´t need an auxiliary to form interogative and/or negative.
ex: they can´t swim; can he swim?
3.- They are followed by infinitive without “to” but “have to”, “ought to”
and “need to”.
ex: I could swim
4.- They are followed by another verb.
ex: She could read French.
5.- Some of them have several meanings.
ex: I could read Chinese (ability)
ex: could you pass me the water? (request)
MODAL VERBS.
MODAL
EXAMPLES
USES
CAN (PRESENT)
BE ABLE TO
Mary can run very fast.
Mary is able to run fast.
ABILITY
(PRESENT)
COULD (PAST)
She could run very fast
when she was a child
ABILITY (PAST)
BE ABLE TO (REST
OF TENSES)
She will be able to run
fast in two months
ABILITY (OTHER
TENSES)
MODAL VERBS.
MODAL
EXAMPLES
USES
CAN
-PUEDES-
Can I call you tonight?
REQUEST
COULD
-PODRÍASMAY
-PUEDO-
Could you help me with the
suitcases?
May I join this team?
POLITE REQUEST
WOULD
-QUIERES-
Would you open the window?
Would you like something to
drink?
FORMAL REQUEST
OFFER
COULD
-PODRÍAS-
You could exercise and eat
healthier food
POLITE
SUGGESTION
MODAL VERBS.
MODAL
EXAMPLES
USES
CAN
Women´s sports can be
exciting to watch
POSSIBILITY
(EXITS)
COULD
It could be dangerous for
women to compete with men.
POSSIBILITY
(+)
MIGHT
She might win the gold medal
in the competition
POSSIBILITY
(-)
MODAL VERBS.
MODAL
EXAMPLES
USES
MUST (PRESENT)
(internal obligation)
HAVE TO (PRESENT)
(external obligation)
-TENER QUE-
You must try hard for
the match.
I have to buy the
tickets today
OBLIGATION/
NECESSITY
(PRESENT)
HAD TO (PAST)
(internal/external
obligation)
-TENER QUE-
You had to try hard
OBLIGATION/
for the match.
NECESSITY
I had to buy the tikets
(PAST)
yesterday
NEED TO (PRESENT)
- NECESITAR(NO ES MODAL)
You need to practise
harder.
OBLIGATION/
NECESSITY
(PRESENT)
NEEDED TO (PAST)
- NECESITAR-
You needed to
practise harder.
OBLIGATION/
NECESSITY
(PAST)
IT NEEDS
AUXILIARY
MODAL VERBS.
MODAL
EXAMPLES
USES
NEEDN´T
-NO TENER QUE-
You needn´t bring
anything to the party
LACK OF
OBLIGATION
I don´t have to get up
early tomorrow.
LACK OF
OBLIGATION
(MODAL,SÓLO NEGATIVA)
DON´T HAVE TO
-NO TENER QUE-
MODAL
EXAMPLE
USES
MUST
She´s got a great job. She
must be very happy
CERTAINTY THAT
SOMETHING IS
TRUE/ DEDUCTION
MODAL
EXAMPLE
USES
MUSTN´T
You mustn´t exceed the
speed limit
PROHIBITION
IT NEEDS
AUXILIARY
MODAL VERBS.
MODAL
EXAMPLE
USES
SHOULD
(shouldn´t)
-DEBERÍAOUGHT TO
(ought not to)
-DEBERÍA-
You should try and get
on well with your
siblings.
ADVISE /
OPINION
You ought to warm up
before training.
PERFECT MODALS
MODAL PERFECT
EXAMPLES
USES
MUST HAVE + PAST
PARTICIPLE
Linda has arrived late. She
must have been in a traffic
jam.
Certainty that something was
true.
Expresa una conclusion lógica
sobre un hecho pasado.
MAY/MIGHT HAVE + PAST
PARTICIPLE
She may/might have taken the
wrong bus.
A guess about a past action
Se usa para hacer una
suposición de algo pasado.
COULD HAVE + PAST
PARTICIPLE
He couldn´t have gone to the
concert because he was doing
a test.
Certainty that something did
not happen.
Indica que se pudo haber
hecho algo en el pasado pero
que finalmente no se hizo.
WOULD HAVE + PAST
PARTICIPLE
I would have gone to the party,
but it was too busy
Willingness to have done
something but in fact could
not.
Indica que se quiso haber
hecho algo en el pasado, pero
no se pudo debido a factores o
circunstancias externas.
PERFECT MODALS.
MODAL PERFECT
EXAMPLES
USES
SHOULD/OUGHT TO HAVE
+ PAST PARTICIPLE
You should / ought to
have warned me earlier
Criticism or regret after an
event.
Podemos tanto quejarnos
de lo ocurrido en el
pasado, como
lamentarnos de que no se
haya cumplido lo que
esperábamos.
SHOULDN´T HAVE + PAST
PARTICIPLE
He shouldn´t have
forgotten about her
birthday.
Criticism after an event.
Expresa nuestra opinión
crítica sobre un hecho
pasado indicando que no
debería haber ocurrido.
NEEDN´T HAVE + PAST
PARTICIPLE
You needen´t have
brought anything to my
party
An unnecesary action in
the past.
Indica que no había
necesidad de hacer lo que
se hizo.
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