ALWD Third Edition Intro L Rev Updated

ALWD Citation Manual
The Third Edition
Not change for the sake of
 Goal to refine and clarify the
 Goal to respond to users’
Returning Features
Fast formats
Diagramed examples
More examples
Detailed index
Local court rules
Two-color design
Web site for updates
Notable Additions
Capitalization of prepositions and titles in
French, German, and Spanish.
 Guidance on citing to both a page
number and a footnote or endnote
 Expanded coverage of basic
international, foreign, and
intergovernmental sources.
 Updated examples.
 Many clarifications and explanations.
Rule 1: Typeface
Additions added to rule 1.1 and in
Sidebar 23.2 about how to use large
and small capital letters as a typeface,
when submitting material to law
reviews or book publishers that
require that type face.
Rule 2: Abbreviations
Rule 2.3 permits the
abbreviation U.S. in textual
sentences, in addition to the
abbreviations &, Assn.,
Bros., Co., Corp., Inc., Ltd.,
and No.
Rule 3: Capitalization
New Sidebar 3.1 provides a list of
prepositions commonly used in titles.
 New Rule 3.4 address capitalization
rules for titles in French, German, and
Rule 6: Sections &
Provides guidance when citing both a
page number and a section and/or
paragraph number.
Rule 7 – When the Pinpoint
Includes a Footnote/Endnote
Provides guidance on how to cite to both
the page number and footnote or endnote
Contains a new rule regarding how to cite to
footnotes/endnotes when using Id.
Harold J. Berman, The Historical
Foundations of Law, 54 Emory L.J. 13, 16
nn. 2–5 (2005).
Id. at 16 n. 4.
Rule 8: Supplements
Provides guidance on how to cite to
material that appears in multiple
For example:
Citing multiple supplements, different years:
17 U.S.C. § 512 (Supps. IV 1999 & V 2000).
Citing multiple supplements, same year:
17 U.S.C. § 512(d)(1)–(3) (Supps. IV & V
Rule 11: Short Citations
Clarification of the use of the term “at”
in short citations.
 Use “at” before the pinpoint page,
section, paragraph, or other division.
Id. at 564.
 Id. at § 1.55.
 Id. at ¶ 8.
 Id. at tbl. 2.5.
Rule 12 – Cases
Provides guidance for citing bankruptcy
New subsections added to Rule 12.2:
Rule 12.2(r): how to cite to a case or group
of cases that has become well known by a
popular name.
Rule 12.2(s): how to cite cases with
multiple decisions
Rule 12.4 has been rewritten to provide
further clarification.
Rule 14: Statutes
In order to reflect common
practice by practicing
attorneys, if the citation of a
statute includes the statute
title, the title should appear in
ordinary type.
Sidebar 14.2 now indicates
that the abbreviation U.S.C.
may be used when referring to
a statute in a textual sentence.
Rule 19: Federal
Regulations and Patents
Rule 19.1(d) provides guidance on
how to cite to C.F.R. sections that
appear in electronic databases.
 New rule – 19.13 – shows how to
cite to patents.
Rule 21: International
Expanded rule that includes
fundamental information about citing
to basic international, foreign, and
intergovernmental sources.
Rule 22: Books
Subsections added to show the
Rule 22.1(i)(4): how to cite to more
than one publisher.
 Rule 22.1(n): how to cite to the Koran
and the Talmud.
 Rule 22.1(o): how to cite to books in a
foreign language.
Rules 23: Periodicals
Provides further guidance about the placement of
the comma when the article title ends with
quotation marks.
After the complete title, typically insert a comma and
one space, and the comma is not italicized.
For example:
• Neil Gotanda, A Critique of “Our Constitution Is
Color-Blind” , 44 Stan. L. Rev. 1 (1991).
New sections have been added to show the
Rule 23.1(j): how to cite to a letter to the editor.
Rule 23.1(k): how to cite to a cartoon or comic strip.
Rule 23.1(l): how to cite to an advertisement.
Rule 37: Working Papers
Rule 37.3 has been added to show
how to cite working papers, including
material that appears on SSRN.
Rule 40: Blogs
Rule 40.3 has been added to show
how to cite to weblogs.
Rule 44: Explanatory
Clarification added to Rules 44.4 and
46.1 to explain that explanatory
parentheticals should be used to
assist the reader, not to be included
any time that a signal is used.
Rule 45: Order of Authorities
Foreign, international, and
intergovernmental organization
sources have been added to the
specific order of authorities in Rule
 Rule 45.4(c)(9) clarifies where
electronic sources should be inserted.
Rule 48: Footnotes within a
Block Quote
Rule 48.3 has been added to explain
how to add a note reference number
within a block quote, by enclosing the
superscripted number in brackets.
All appendices are included in the
third edition, instead of some of the
appendices being located in the book
and others on the Web site.
 Added country and regional
abbreviations to Appendix 3.
Sample Law School
American University
Arizona State
Boston University
Case Western
Florida International
New York Law School
Northwestern University
Rutgers (Camden & Newark)
St. Louis University
Temple University
University of Arizona
University of California – Hastings
University of Colorado
University of Dayton
University of Florida
University of Idaho
University of Las Vegas, Nevada
University of Louisville
University of Maine
University of Michigan
University of Missouri (Columbia
& KC)
University of Oregon
University of South Dakota
University of Texas
University of Utah
University of Wyoming
Wake Forest
Wayne State
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