The ability to reference sources effectively is a key feature of the Individual Investigation Avoid plagiarism i.e. the use of other people’s work and the submission of it as though it were your own. CITING SOURCES The following sentence could be used in your investigation where you refer to ideas by Professor David Crouch. • ‘It has been suggested that the medieval tournament resembled …a modern spectator sport, with spectators, chants, national teams, team colours, inflated salaries, transfer fees, celebrity cults and a lifestyle notable for its excesses.’ (Crouch, 2006) •Alternatively you could begin, ‘Crouch (2006) has suggested… Author’s name & date Cite when paraphrasing Paraphrasing is rewriting an argument, opinion or point made in a source using your own words. If you are paraphrasing a particular argument or point made in a source you must acknowledge the source of your information and include page numbers. It has been argued (Harris 2001, pp. 20-21) that………....... Using direct quotations Use quotation marks and include the page number. If there are more than two authors, cite only the first followed by ‘et al’ which means and others. “….homeless in Cardiff.” (Smith 2011) “....homeless in Cheyenne” (Lewis et al. 2011) THE REFERENCE LIST & BIBLIOGRAPHY •A reference list is a list of all the information sources that you have cited in your text. • A bibliography is a list of items that you have read, and has informed your thinking, including those you may not have specifically cited in your assignment. . References •Enable the reader to find the sources you have used . •Help support your arguments and provide your work with credibility. • •Show the scope and breadth of your research. • Acknowledge sources and avoid charges of plagiarism. Reference list •List in alphabetical order by author's surname regardless of the type of source. •Emphasise the title of the source using italics, bold or underlining. •Use capital letters for author names, source titles & all main words in the title of a journal. Author’s name Date Source title Publisher Crouch, D. (2006) Tournament. Hambledon Continuum. N.B. Use of capitals This title emphasised using italics Internet sources Author and/or organisation Chris Mcgreal, Guardian Online Publication Date 16 February, 2012 Title and format of document Congress passes payroll tax cut as GOP relents on savings demand. Online. Available at (Web address) Date accessed http://www.guardian. co.uk/world/2012/fe b/15/us-congresspayroll-tax-cut 17 February, 2012 Chris McGreal. Congress passes payroll tax cut. 16 February 2012. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/feb/15/us-congress-payroll-tax-cut. [Accessed 17 February 2012] Twitter, Bebo and Facebook Author or organisation Obama B. Title and format of document online Available at (Web address) President https://twitter.c Obama om/#!/baracko comments in bama favour of tax cuts Publication Date Date accessed (Date you viewed site) 17.02.12 17.02.12 Audio-visual sources Ahern, B., 1999. Interview on Morning Ireland Interviewed by… John Boyd [radio] RTE Radio 1, 15 February 1999, 08:30. In the case of TV/radio programmes, note the date and channel of transmission. Summing up •Always cite your sources and use a reference list/bibliography. •Harvard referencing is based on providing the author, date, title and publisher. •For internet sources add the web address and date accessed.