Beginnings of Globalization

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Beginnings of Globalization
Age of Exploration
How did European exploration lead to
European empires in the Eastern
Hemisphere?
Spice up European life
• Spice-vital part of world economy in 1400s
– Used to preserve food, flavor, perfumes, medicines
– Source of spices-present day Indonesia-called Spice
Islands
• Controlled mainly by Arab and Italian merchants
•
•
and traders
More profitable to get direct access to Asia
Curiosity
• Portugal first to explore-Prince Henry
– By 1415-parts of Muslim North Africa
– Could convert Africans to Christianity
– Resources Muslim traders had access to
– Easier way to get to Asia
• Go around Africa
• Made way south exploring Western Coast of Africa
– 1488- Bartholomeu Dias rounded southern tip of
Africa
• Cape of Good Hope-opened way to get to Asia
– 1497- Vasco de Gama -led 4 ships around the Cape
of Good Hope and further
• Reached port of Calicut-West coast of India
• On way home many died of hunger, thirst, scurvy
• Voyage highly profitable-acquired cargo of spice--$$
• 1502-forced a treaty on ruler of Calicut
• Portugal had access to key ports around the Indian Ocean
• Portugal’s success leads others to look for
new sea routes to Asia
• Christopher Columbus -Italian
Navigator from Genoa
– Wanted to sail west across Atlantic to reach
East Indies
– Miscalculated Earth’s size-2 continents in his
way
• Map
– Persuaded rulers of Spain-Ferdinand and
Isabella to finance voyage
• Hoped voyage would bring wealth and prestige
– August 1492
• October-reached land-Carribean
• Thought he had reached the Indies
• 1493-Return to Spain
• Certain he reached East Asia-other Europeans
realized he found a route to previously unknown
continents
– 1493-Ferdinand and Isabella asked Pope
Alexander VI to support claim to the lands of
new world
• Line of Demarcation: Dividing non-European
world into 2 zones
– Spain gets trading and exploration rights west of line;
Portugal gets trading and exploration rights rights east of
line
– Treaty of Tordesillas: Signed between the 2 countries
 Line was unclear-geography was unknown
 Other European nations eager to build empires
• No direct route to Asia
– English, Dutch, French explored looking for a
‘Northwest passage’- route from Atlantic to
Pacific through Arctic Islands
– 1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa-made way
westward through Panama
• Called the body of water he came to South Seawas Pacific Ocean
– September 1519 Portuguese nobleman Ferdinand
Magellan set out to find Pacific Ocean
– November 1520-reached southern tip of South
America
• Strait of Magellan
• South Sea-Renamed Pacific
• Kept moving west across the Pacific to reach Spice Islands
• 1521-Reached the Philippines-Magellan killed
• September 1522-Return to Spain-18 survivors
– 1st to circumnavigate the world
New tools for easy exploration
• 1400s-Knowledge of world and how to navigate
greatly expanded
– Geographers gave navigators more accurate maps
– Magnetic Compass-navigators used to find bearings
and chart courses
– Caravel-ship, light and fast-easily maneuvered
– Astrolabe-used by looking at the sun or a star and
determined it’s angle to find latitude and time
• http://phschool.com/atschool/dsp_swf.cfm
?pathname=/atschool/worldhistory/audio_
guided_tours/&filename=WH07A00416.sw
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Writing a topic Sentence
• Look over your notes Identify Verb
the item
and write a topic
sentence using the IVF
method.
• Then list 3 facts that
Early
support your topic
European
sentence.
explorers
• How did searching for
spices lead to global
exploration?
were
looking
Finish
your
thought
for a route to
reach Asia.
Africa
• Portuguese: Looking for way to Asia
– Built small forts to collect food and water, repair ships
– Established trading posts
• Traded muskets, tools, and cloth, for gold, ivory, hides, and
slaves
– Attacked East African coastal cities
• Expelled Arabs who controlled trade
– Some explorers made it to Central Africa
• Lacked accurate maps
• Africans resisted this exploration
• African Slave Trade
– 1500s and 1600s-Europeans saw slaves as
most important item of African trade
• Slavery had existed around the world since ancient
times
– Portuguese
– Eur. Traders bought large numbers of slaves
for labor
• Seldom went to interior of Africa
• Relied on African rulers and traders
• Exchanged for textiles, metalwork, rum, tobacco,
weapons, and gunpowder
• Filled the need for cheap labor
– Shipped across the Atlantic to work on plantations in the
Americas
– Resistance by African leaders
• Tried to slow down or stop the Transatlantic
slave trade, but system was too strong for them
• Affonso I: Ruler of Kongo in West Central Africa
– Had been tutored by Portuguese missionaries
– Asked Portuguese to help develop Kongo as Christian
nation
– Alarmed at the number of Portuguese coming in buying
slaves
– Wanted to maintain contact w/Europe but end slave
trade
– Late 1700s- almany-religious leader of Futa
Toro (present day Senegal)-also resisted slave
trade
• French would buy slaves from Futa Toro
• In 1788 almany forbade transport of slaves
through Futa Toro
• Simply found a new route
• Rise of New African States
– Slave trade=loss of small states disappearing
– At same time-new states appeared-relying on
slave trade
– Asante Kingdom-present day Ghana
• 1600s-Osei Tutu- control of trading city of Kumasi
– Conquered neighboring peoples and unified Asante
– Claimed right to rule came from heaven-spiritual bonds
– Defeat of the Denkyera-powerful enemy kingdom
– Oyo Empire
• Settlement of Yorba people from present day Nigeria
• Used wealth from slave trade to build up army and conquer
neighboring kingdom Dahomey
• Continued trade with Europeans at Porto-Novo
• http://phschool.com/atschool/dsp_swf.cfm
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guided_tours/&filename=WH07A00417.sw
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• Expanding European presence
– Portuguese power declining
– British, French, and Dutch take over
Portuguese forts
– Established more permanent footholds
throughout the continent
– 1652-Dutch built Capetown: first permanent
European settlement
• Supply ships sailing to or from East Indies
• Dutch farmers-Boers settled around Capetown
• Kicked out, enslaved, or killed the people that lived
there.
– Looked at Africans as inferior-did not respect their claim
to their own land
– Mid 1600s-British and French reached Senegal
– Late 1700s-African Association—organization
that sponsored explorers to Africa
• Over next century exploration of Africa increases
dramatically
• Write a topic sentence, then list 3 facts
that support your topic sentence.
• What kind of effects did European
exploration have on the people of Africa?
South and Southeast Asia
• Portugal
– After Vasco de Gama- Afonso de
Albuquerque: Indian Ocean
– Muslim Rulers established Mughal EmpireIndia
• Southern regions still controlled by local princes
• Portuguese swayed princes by promising
protection from other Europeans
– Hoped to end Muslim power
– Trading empire with military and merchant outposts
• Used cities on East coast of Africa to resupply and repair
ships
• Most of 1500s Portuguese controlled spice trade between
Europe and Asia
– 1510 seized island of Goa off coast of India
• Made into major military and commercial base
• Alburquerque-burned coastal towns, crushed Arab fleets
– Took East Indies port of Malacca-massacred city’s Muslims
– Harsh efforts to convert local people to Christianity
– 1st, but limited impact
• Dutch: first to challenge Portuguese in Asian
trade
– Set up colonies and trading posts around the world
– Strategic location at Capetown
– Dutch East India Company: 1602 group of
wealthy Dutch merchants
• Unusual amount of power: had full sovereign powers
including power to build armies, wage war, negotiate
peace treaties, and govern overseas territory
– 1641: Dutch captured Malacca from
Portuguese-opened trade with China
– Enforce a monopoly in the Spice Islands
• Controlled shipments to Europe and Asia
• Used military force to further trading goals
• 1700s growing power of England and France
contributed to decline of Dutch trading empire
– 1900s Dutch maintained empire in Indonesia
• Spain in the Philippines
– Magellan claimed Philippines for Spain in 1521
– Were not united-more easily conquered
– Spanish priests-convert to Christianity
– Important link in Spain’s trading empire
• Shipped silver mined in Mexico and Peru to
Philippines then to buy goods in China
• Mughal Empire and European Traders
– Center of spice trade, also leader in textile
manufacturing-silk and cotton
– Larger, richer, more powerful than any
kingdom in Europe
• Saw no threat to granting Europeans trading rights
– Eventually empire weakened
• Conflicts between Hindu and Muslim princes
• Civil war drained resources-raised taxes, led to rebellions
• French and English fought for power
– British and French-East India companies
– Made alliances with local officials
– Organized army of sepoys: Indian troops
• British East India company forced French out
• Forced Mughal emperor to recognize right to collect taxes
• Late 1700s-dominated most of India
• http://phschool.com/atschool/dsp_swf.cfm
?pathname=/atschool/worldhistory/interac
tive_maps/&filename=WH07Y02064.swf&
w=760&h=460
• Use notes to write a topic sentence. Then
write 3 supporting sentences and a final
closing sentence.
East Asia
• Ming China
– European interest in China grew—Ming not interest in
Europe “we own the world”
• Portuguese wanted Chinese silks and porcelain-nothing to
trade
– European textile and metalwork inferior
– Chinese demanded gold and silver
• Eventually Chinese allowed trade at Macao-near Canton
modern day Guangzhou
– Could only trade at Canton under supervision of Imperial
officials
– When trading season ended-that’s it-foreigners had to leave
• Early 1600s Ming dynasty declining
– Manchurian invaders pushed through Great Wall made way
to Beijing and made capital
– Founding of Qing dynasty
• Kangxi: 1661-1722: Extended Chinese power to Central Asia and
promoted Chinese culture
• Quianlong1736-1796: Expanded China’s borders
– Economy expanded under both emperors
– New crops from Americas introduced-contributed to population boom
 Population rose from 140 million to over 300 million in 40 years
– Silk, cotton, porcelain industries expanded-trade grew
– Demand for Chinese goods
– Europeans still want in-Chinese still say no
• 1793-examples of British made goods to show
advantages of trade with Westerners
– Thought were crude products
– Misunderstandings—no trade
– Didn’t think should trade with Britain-ruled the world’s
greatest empire
• Korea adopted policy of isolation
– Before 1500s, traded across East Asia-Japan to
Mediterranean
– 1592 and 1597 Japanese invaded Korea-drove out in
1598
• Disastrous for Korea-famine, disease, population decreased
• 1636-Manchurians invade
– Under Qing dynasty-had own government, but had to
acknowledge China’s supremacy
– Only trade with Chinese and a few Japanese
– Shipwrecked European sailors imprisoned and held as spies
– Isolated for about 250 years
• Japan at first welcomed European traders
– 1543: Portuguese, then Spanish, Dutch,
English
– Turbulent time: daimyo struggling for
power
• Adopted Western firearms-may have helped to
centralize power and impose order
• Some curious about Christianity-many adopted the
faith
• Printing press
– Learned of Spain’s conquest of Philippines
• Grew hostile toward foreigners
• Worried newly converted Japanese Christians gave allegiance
to pope not Japanese leaders
– Expelled foreigners; killed Japanese Christians
• 1638-Barred all European traders and did not allow Japanese
to travel abroad
• Outlawed building of large ships
• Permitted 1-2 Dutch ships/year to trade at Nagasaki
• Remained isolated for over 200 years
• Use notes to write a topic sentence. Then
write 3 supporting sentences and a final
closing sentence.
• Use your four topic sentences as a starting
point to write a summary of your notes.
• Socratic Seminar Expectations
• A Socratic seminar is a way of teaching founded
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•
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by the Greek philosopher Socrates.
Socrates believed that students learn best by
asking questions.
It is the teacher’s job to moderate the discussion
instead of leading the discussion.
• How do we prepare for a Socratic
•
•
•
Seminar?
The day prior to the seminar you will be asked
to prepare questions of a certain “level.”
It is essential you read the text and prepare
yourself with important questions and
quotations.
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What will the seminar look like?
The classroom will be arranged in two concentric circles.
You will be assigned to either seminar A or seminar B.
You will be assigned a partner in the opposite seminar.
FOR EXAMPLE:
If I am in seminar A my partner will be in seminar B
Mr./Ms. Teacher will be facilitating, but NOT participating
in the seminar.
• What’s the deal with partners?
• If I am in Seminar B, I will be sitting in the outside circle taking
notes for my partner who is in the inner circle participating in the
Seminar A.
• Then we will switch. I will participate in the seminar and my partner
will take notes for me.
• We will be compiling notes at the end of each seminar to be used
for a final reflection.
•
• How does the discussion work in a seminar?
• The seminar is to serve as a discussion, not a lecture. Just like in a
casual conversation, no one begins the conversation; a conversation
begins naturally.
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Seminar Guidelines
Please listen and look at each other when you speak.
One person speaks at a time.
Each person will have a chance to ask a question.
Respond to the person who asks the question.
Use evidence from the text to support yourself.
Always treat each other with mutual respect.
• What happens when it’s over?
• You will be asked to complete a final reflection with specific
guidelines.
• Then you will turn in your work.
• Socratic Seminar Questions
• Level 1 (Knowledge Questions):
• Knowledge means being able to show understanding by talking,
writing, signing, drawing.
•
• Please use the following stems in creating your Knowledge
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Questions:
Can you state, in your own words?
Can you describe?
Can you defend your position?
Can you summarize the information?
• Level II (Application Questions):
• Application means supporting your ideas with evidence.
• Please use the following stems in creating your Application
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Questions:
Explain how …
Explain why …
Interpret the reasons …
Compare and contrast …
Connect and explain …
• Level III (Synthesis Questions):
• Synthesis means combining or connecting two different elements.
• In terms of the Socratic Seminar you will be connecting two
different ideas from one text, two texts with each other, OR
connecting a text to the outside world.
• Please use the following stems in creating your Synthesis
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Questions:
Imagine …
What would happen if …?
Hypothesize …
Theorize …
Speculate…
How is <Text name> similar to <insert idea from Outside World>?
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