Beginnings of Globalization Age of Exploration How did European exploration lead to European empires in the Eastern Hemisphere? Spice up European life • Spice-vital part of world economy in 1400s – Used to preserve food, flavor, perfumes, medicines – Source of spices-present day Indonesia-called Spice Islands • Controlled mainly by Arab and Italian merchants • • and traders More profitable to get direct access to Asia Curiosity • Portugal first to explore-Prince Henry – By 1415-parts of Muslim North Africa – Could convert Africans to Christianity – Resources Muslim traders had access to – Easier way to get to Asia • Go around Africa • Made way south exploring Western Coast of Africa – 1488- Bartholomeu Dias rounded southern tip of Africa • Cape of Good Hope-opened way to get to Asia – 1497- Vasco de Gama -led 4 ships around the Cape of Good Hope and further • Reached port of Calicut-West coast of India • On way home many died of hunger, thirst, scurvy • Voyage highly profitable-acquired cargo of spice--$$ • 1502-forced a treaty on ruler of Calicut • Portugal had access to key ports around the Indian Ocean • Portugal’s success leads others to look for new sea routes to Asia • Christopher Columbus -Italian Navigator from Genoa – Wanted to sail west across Atlantic to reach East Indies – Miscalculated Earth’s size-2 continents in his way • Map – Persuaded rulers of Spain-Ferdinand and Isabella to finance voyage • Hoped voyage would bring wealth and prestige – August 1492 • October-reached land-Carribean • Thought he had reached the Indies • 1493-Return to Spain • Certain he reached East Asia-other Europeans realized he found a route to previously unknown continents – 1493-Ferdinand and Isabella asked Pope Alexander VI to support claim to the lands of new world • Line of Demarcation: Dividing non-European world into 2 zones – Spain gets trading and exploration rights west of line; Portugal gets trading and exploration rights rights east of line – Treaty of Tordesillas: Signed between the 2 countries Line was unclear-geography was unknown Other European nations eager to build empires • No direct route to Asia – English, Dutch, French explored looking for a ‘Northwest passage’- route from Atlantic to Pacific through Arctic Islands – 1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa-made way westward through Panama • Called the body of water he came to South Seawas Pacific Ocean – September 1519 Portuguese nobleman Ferdinand Magellan set out to find Pacific Ocean – November 1520-reached southern tip of South America • Strait of Magellan • South Sea-Renamed Pacific • Kept moving west across the Pacific to reach Spice Islands • 1521-Reached the Philippines-Magellan killed • September 1522-Return to Spain-18 survivors – 1st to circumnavigate the world New tools for easy exploration • 1400s-Knowledge of world and how to navigate greatly expanded – Geographers gave navigators more accurate maps – Magnetic Compass-navigators used to find bearings and chart courses – Caravel-ship, light and fast-easily maneuvered – Astrolabe-used by looking at the sun or a star and determined it’s angle to find latitude and time • http://phschool.com/atschool/dsp_swf.cfm ?pathname=/atschool/worldhistory/audio_ guided_tours/&filename=WH07A00416.sw f&w=760&h=460 Writing a topic Sentence • Look over your notes Identify Verb the item and write a topic sentence using the IVF method. • Then list 3 facts that Early support your topic European sentence. explorers • How did searching for spices lead to global exploration? were looking Finish your thought for a route to reach Asia. Africa • Portuguese: Looking for way to Asia – Built small forts to collect food and water, repair ships – Established trading posts • Traded muskets, tools, and cloth, for gold, ivory, hides, and slaves – Attacked East African coastal cities • Expelled Arabs who controlled trade – Some explorers made it to Central Africa • Lacked accurate maps • Africans resisted this exploration • African Slave Trade – 1500s and 1600s-Europeans saw slaves as most important item of African trade • Slavery had existed around the world since ancient times – Portuguese – Eur. Traders bought large numbers of slaves for labor • Seldom went to interior of Africa • Relied on African rulers and traders • Exchanged for textiles, metalwork, rum, tobacco, weapons, and gunpowder • Filled the need for cheap labor – Shipped across the Atlantic to work on plantations in the Americas – Resistance by African leaders • Tried to slow down or stop the Transatlantic slave trade, but system was too strong for them • Affonso I: Ruler of Kongo in West Central Africa – Had been tutored by Portuguese missionaries – Asked Portuguese to help develop Kongo as Christian nation – Alarmed at the number of Portuguese coming in buying slaves – Wanted to maintain contact w/Europe but end slave trade – Late 1700s- almany-religious leader of Futa Toro (present day Senegal)-also resisted slave trade • French would buy slaves from Futa Toro • In 1788 almany forbade transport of slaves through Futa Toro • Simply found a new route • Rise of New African States – Slave trade=loss of small states disappearing – At same time-new states appeared-relying on slave trade – Asante Kingdom-present day Ghana • 1600s-Osei Tutu- control of trading city of Kumasi – Conquered neighboring peoples and unified Asante – Claimed right to rule came from heaven-spiritual bonds – Defeat of the Denkyera-powerful enemy kingdom – Oyo Empire • Settlement of Yorba people from present day Nigeria • Used wealth from slave trade to build up army and conquer neighboring kingdom Dahomey • Continued trade with Europeans at Porto-Novo • http://phschool.com/atschool/dsp_swf.cfm ?pathname=/atschool/worldhistory/audio_ guided_tours/&filename=WH07A00417.sw f&w=760&h=460 • Expanding European presence – Portuguese power declining – British, French, and Dutch take over Portuguese forts – Established more permanent footholds throughout the continent – 1652-Dutch built Capetown: first permanent European settlement • Supply ships sailing to or from East Indies • Dutch farmers-Boers settled around Capetown • Kicked out, enslaved, or killed the people that lived there. – Looked at Africans as inferior-did not respect their claim to their own land – Mid 1600s-British and French reached Senegal – Late 1700s-African Association—organization that sponsored explorers to Africa • Over next century exploration of Africa increases dramatically • Write a topic sentence, then list 3 facts that support your topic sentence. • What kind of effects did European exploration have on the people of Africa? South and Southeast Asia • Portugal – After Vasco de Gama- Afonso de Albuquerque: Indian Ocean – Muslim Rulers established Mughal EmpireIndia • Southern regions still controlled by local princes • Portuguese swayed princes by promising protection from other Europeans – Hoped to end Muslim power – Trading empire with military and merchant outposts • Used cities on East coast of Africa to resupply and repair ships • Most of 1500s Portuguese controlled spice trade between Europe and Asia – 1510 seized island of Goa off coast of India • Made into major military and commercial base • Alburquerque-burned coastal towns, crushed Arab fleets – Took East Indies port of Malacca-massacred city’s Muslims – Harsh efforts to convert local people to Christianity – 1st, but limited impact • Dutch: first to challenge Portuguese in Asian trade – Set up colonies and trading posts around the world – Strategic location at Capetown – Dutch East India Company: 1602 group of wealthy Dutch merchants • Unusual amount of power: had full sovereign powers including power to build armies, wage war, negotiate peace treaties, and govern overseas territory – 1641: Dutch captured Malacca from Portuguese-opened trade with China – Enforce a monopoly in the Spice Islands • Controlled shipments to Europe and Asia • Used military force to further trading goals • 1700s growing power of England and France contributed to decline of Dutch trading empire – 1900s Dutch maintained empire in Indonesia • Spain in the Philippines – Magellan claimed Philippines for Spain in 1521 – Were not united-more easily conquered – Spanish priests-convert to Christianity – Important link in Spain’s trading empire • Shipped silver mined in Mexico and Peru to Philippines then to buy goods in China • Mughal Empire and European Traders – Center of spice trade, also leader in textile manufacturing-silk and cotton – Larger, richer, more powerful than any kingdom in Europe • Saw no threat to granting Europeans trading rights – Eventually empire weakened • Conflicts between Hindu and Muslim princes • Civil war drained resources-raised taxes, led to rebellions • French and English fought for power – British and French-East India companies – Made alliances with local officials – Organized army of sepoys: Indian troops • British East India company forced French out • Forced Mughal emperor to recognize right to collect taxes • Late 1700s-dominated most of India • http://phschool.com/atschool/dsp_swf.cfm ?pathname=/atschool/worldhistory/interac tive_maps/&filename=WH07Y02064.swf& w=760&h=460 • Use notes to write a topic sentence. Then write 3 supporting sentences and a final closing sentence. East Asia • Ming China – European interest in China grew—Ming not interest in Europe “we own the world” • Portuguese wanted Chinese silks and porcelain-nothing to trade – European textile and metalwork inferior – Chinese demanded gold and silver • Eventually Chinese allowed trade at Macao-near Canton modern day Guangzhou – Could only trade at Canton under supervision of Imperial officials – When trading season ended-that’s it-foreigners had to leave • Early 1600s Ming dynasty declining – Manchurian invaders pushed through Great Wall made way to Beijing and made capital – Founding of Qing dynasty • Kangxi: 1661-1722: Extended Chinese power to Central Asia and promoted Chinese culture • Quianlong1736-1796: Expanded China’s borders – Economy expanded under both emperors – New crops from Americas introduced-contributed to population boom Population rose from 140 million to over 300 million in 40 years – Silk, cotton, porcelain industries expanded-trade grew – Demand for Chinese goods – Europeans still want in-Chinese still say no • 1793-examples of British made goods to show advantages of trade with Westerners – Thought were crude products – Misunderstandings—no trade – Didn’t think should trade with Britain-ruled the world’s greatest empire • Korea adopted policy of isolation – Before 1500s, traded across East Asia-Japan to Mediterranean – 1592 and 1597 Japanese invaded Korea-drove out in 1598 • Disastrous for Korea-famine, disease, population decreased • 1636-Manchurians invade – Under Qing dynasty-had own government, but had to acknowledge China’s supremacy – Only trade with Chinese and a few Japanese – Shipwrecked European sailors imprisoned and held as spies – Isolated for about 250 years • Japan at first welcomed European traders – 1543: Portuguese, then Spanish, Dutch, English – Turbulent time: daimyo struggling for power • Adopted Western firearms-may have helped to centralize power and impose order • Some curious about Christianity-many adopted the faith • Printing press – Learned of Spain’s conquest of Philippines • Grew hostile toward foreigners • Worried newly converted Japanese Christians gave allegiance to pope not Japanese leaders – Expelled foreigners; killed Japanese Christians • 1638-Barred all European traders and did not allow Japanese to travel abroad • Outlawed building of large ships • Permitted 1-2 Dutch ships/year to trade at Nagasaki • Remained isolated for over 200 years • Use notes to write a topic sentence. Then write 3 supporting sentences and a final closing sentence. • Use your four topic sentences as a starting point to write a summary of your notes. • Socratic Seminar Expectations • A Socratic seminar is a way of teaching founded • • • by the Greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates believed that students learn best by asking questions. It is the teacher’s job to moderate the discussion instead of leading the discussion. • How do we prepare for a Socratic • • • Seminar? The day prior to the seminar you will be asked to prepare questions of a certain “level.” It is essential you read the text and prepare yourself with important questions and quotations. • • • • • • • • What will the seminar look like? The classroom will be arranged in two concentric circles. You will be assigned to either seminar A or seminar B. You will be assigned a partner in the opposite seminar. FOR EXAMPLE: If I am in seminar A my partner will be in seminar B Mr./Ms. Teacher will be facilitating, but NOT participating in the seminar. • What’s the deal with partners? • If I am in Seminar B, I will be sitting in the outside circle taking notes for my partner who is in the inner circle participating in the Seminar A. • Then we will switch. I will participate in the seminar and my partner will take notes for me. • We will be compiling notes at the end of each seminar to be used for a final reflection. • • How does the discussion work in a seminar? • The seminar is to serve as a discussion, not a lecture. Just like in a casual conversation, no one begins the conversation; a conversation begins naturally. • • • • • • • Seminar Guidelines Please listen and look at each other when you speak. One person speaks at a time. Each person will have a chance to ask a question. Respond to the person who asks the question. Use evidence from the text to support yourself. Always treat each other with mutual respect. • What happens when it’s over? • You will be asked to complete a final reflection with specific guidelines. • Then you will turn in your work. • Socratic Seminar Questions • Level 1 (Knowledge Questions): • Knowledge means being able to show understanding by talking, writing, signing, drawing. • • Please use the following stems in creating your Knowledge • • • • • Questions: Can you state, in your own words? Can you describe? Can you defend your position? Can you summarize the information? • Level II (Application Questions): • Application means supporting your ideas with evidence. • Please use the following stems in creating your Application • • • • • • Questions: Explain how … Explain why … Interpret the reasons … Compare and contrast … Connect and explain … • Level III (Synthesis Questions): • Synthesis means combining or connecting two different elements. • In terms of the Socratic Seminar you will be connecting two different ideas from one text, two texts with each other, OR connecting a text to the outside world. • Please use the following stems in creating your Synthesis • • • • • • Questions: Imagine … What would happen if …? Hypothesize … Theorize … Speculate… How is <Text name> similar to <insert idea from Outside World>?