Beginnings of Globalization

Beginnings of Globalization
Age of Exploration
How did European exploration lead to
European empires in the Eastern
Spice up European life
• Spice-vital part of world economy in 1400s
– Used to preserve food, flavor, perfumes, medicines
– Source of spices-present day Indonesia-called Spice
• Controlled mainly by Arab and Italian merchants
and traders
More profitable to get direct access to Asia
• Portugal first to explore-Prince Henry
– By 1415-parts of Muslim North Africa
– Could convert Africans to Christianity
– Resources Muslim traders had access to
– Easier way to get to Asia
• Go around Africa
• Made way south exploring Western Coast of Africa
– 1488- Bartholomeu Dias rounded southern tip of
• Cape of Good Hope-opened way to get to Asia
– 1497- Vasco de Gama -led 4 ships around the Cape
of Good Hope and further
• Reached port of Calicut-West coast of India
• On way home many died of hunger, thirst, scurvy
• Voyage highly profitable-acquired cargo of spice--$$
• 1502-forced a treaty on ruler of Calicut
• Portugal had access to key ports around the Indian Ocean
• Portugal’s success leads others to look for
new sea routes to Asia
• Christopher Columbus -Italian
Navigator from Genoa
– Wanted to sail west across Atlantic to reach
East Indies
– Miscalculated Earth’s size-2 continents in his
• Map
– Persuaded rulers of Spain-Ferdinand and
Isabella to finance voyage
• Hoped voyage would bring wealth and prestige
– August 1492
• October-reached land-Carribean
• Thought he had reached the Indies
• 1493-Return to Spain
• Certain he reached East Asia-other Europeans
realized he found a route to previously unknown
– 1493-Ferdinand and Isabella asked Pope
Alexander VI to support claim to the lands of
new world
• Line of Demarcation: Dividing non-European
world into 2 zones
– Spain gets trading and exploration rights west of line;
Portugal gets trading and exploration rights rights east of
– Treaty of Tordesillas: Signed between the 2 countries
 Line was unclear-geography was unknown
 Other European nations eager to build empires
• No direct route to Asia
– English, Dutch, French explored looking for a
‘Northwest passage’- route from Atlantic to
Pacific through Arctic Islands
– 1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa-made way
westward through Panama
• Called the body of water he came to South Seawas Pacific Ocean
– September 1519 Portuguese nobleman Ferdinand
Magellan set out to find Pacific Ocean
– November 1520-reached southern tip of South
• Strait of Magellan
• South Sea-Renamed Pacific
• Kept moving west across the Pacific to reach Spice Islands
• 1521-Reached the Philippines-Magellan killed
• September 1522-Return to Spain-18 survivors
– 1st to circumnavigate the world
New tools for easy exploration
• 1400s-Knowledge of world and how to navigate
greatly expanded
– Geographers gave navigators more accurate maps
– Magnetic Compass-navigators used to find bearings
and chart courses
– Caravel-ship, light and fast-easily maneuvered
– Astrolabe-used by looking at the sun or a star and
determined it’s angle to find latitude and time
Writing a topic Sentence
• Look over your notes Identify Verb
the item
and write a topic
sentence using the IVF
• Then list 3 facts that
support your topic
• How did searching for
spices lead to global
for a route to
reach Asia.
• Portuguese: Looking for way to Asia
– Built small forts to collect food and water, repair ships
– Established trading posts
• Traded muskets, tools, and cloth, for gold, ivory, hides, and
– Attacked East African coastal cities
• Expelled Arabs who controlled trade
– Some explorers made it to Central Africa
• Lacked accurate maps
• Africans resisted this exploration
• African Slave Trade
– 1500s and 1600s-Europeans saw slaves as
most important item of African trade
• Slavery had existed around the world since ancient
– Portuguese
– Eur. Traders bought large numbers of slaves
for labor
• Seldom went to interior of Africa
• Relied on African rulers and traders
• Exchanged for textiles, metalwork, rum, tobacco,
weapons, and gunpowder
• Filled the need for cheap labor
– Shipped across the Atlantic to work on plantations in the
– Resistance by African leaders
• Tried to slow down or stop the Transatlantic
slave trade, but system was too strong for them
• Affonso I: Ruler of Kongo in West Central Africa
– Had been tutored by Portuguese missionaries
– Asked Portuguese to help develop Kongo as Christian
– Alarmed at the number of Portuguese coming in buying
– Wanted to maintain contact w/Europe but end slave
– Late 1700s- almany-religious leader of Futa
Toro (present day Senegal)-also resisted slave
• French would buy slaves from Futa Toro
• In 1788 almany forbade transport of slaves
through Futa Toro
• Simply found a new route
• Rise of New African States
– Slave trade=loss of small states disappearing
– At same time-new states appeared-relying on
slave trade
– Asante Kingdom-present day Ghana
• 1600s-Osei Tutu- control of trading city of Kumasi
– Conquered neighboring peoples and unified Asante
– Claimed right to rule came from heaven-spiritual bonds
– Defeat of the Denkyera-powerful enemy kingdom
– Oyo Empire
• Settlement of Yorba people from present day Nigeria
• Used wealth from slave trade to build up army and conquer
neighboring kingdom Dahomey
• Continued trade with Europeans at Porto-Novo
• Expanding European presence
– Portuguese power declining
– British, French, and Dutch take over
Portuguese forts
– Established more permanent footholds
throughout the continent
– 1652-Dutch built Capetown: first permanent
European settlement
• Supply ships sailing to or from East Indies
• Dutch farmers-Boers settled around Capetown
• Kicked out, enslaved, or killed the people that lived
– Looked at Africans as inferior-did not respect their claim
to their own land
– Mid 1600s-British and French reached Senegal
– Late 1700s-African Association—organization
that sponsored explorers to Africa
• Over next century exploration of Africa increases
• Write a topic sentence, then list 3 facts
that support your topic sentence.
• What kind of effects did European
exploration have on the people of Africa?
South and Southeast Asia
• Portugal
– After Vasco de Gama- Afonso de
Albuquerque: Indian Ocean
– Muslim Rulers established Mughal EmpireIndia
• Southern regions still controlled by local princes
• Portuguese swayed princes by promising
protection from other Europeans
– Hoped to end Muslim power
– Trading empire with military and merchant outposts
• Used cities on East coast of Africa to resupply and repair
• Most of 1500s Portuguese controlled spice trade between
Europe and Asia
– 1510 seized island of Goa off coast of India
• Made into major military and commercial base
• Alburquerque-burned coastal towns, crushed Arab fleets
– Took East Indies port of Malacca-massacred city’s Muslims
– Harsh efforts to convert local people to Christianity
– 1st, but limited impact
• Dutch: first to challenge Portuguese in Asian
– Set up colonies and trading posts around the world
– Strategic location at Capetown
– Dutch East India Company: 1602 group of
wealthy Dutch merchants
• Unusual amount of power: had full sovereign powers
including power to build armies, wage war, negotiate
peace treaties, and govern overseas territory
– 1641: Dutch captured Malacca from
Portuguese-opened trade with China
– Enforce a monopoly in the Spice Islands
• Controlled shipments to Europe and Asia
• Used military force to further trading goals
• 1700s growing power of England and France
contributed to decline of Dutch trading empire
– 1900s Dutch maintained empire in Indonesia
• Spain in the Philippines
– Magellan claimed Philippines for Spain in 1521
– Were not united-more easily conquered
– Spanish priests-convert to Christianity
– Important link in Spain’s trading empire
• Shipped silver mined in Mexico and Peru to
Philippines then to buy goods in China
• Mughal Empire and European Traders
– Center of spice trade, also leader in textile
manufacturing-silk and cotton
– Larger, richer, more powerful than any
kingdom in Europe
• Saw no threat to granting Europeans trading rights
– Eventually empire weakened
• Conflicts between Hindu and Muslim princes
• Civil war drained resources-raised taxes, led to rebellions
• French and English fought for power
– British and French-East India companies
– Made alliances with local officials
– Organized army of sepoys: Indian troops
• British East India company forced French out
• Forced Mughal emperor to recognize right to collect taxes
• Late 1700s-dominated most of India
• Use notes to write a topic sentence. Then
write 3 supporting sentences and a final
closing sentence.
East Asia
• Ming China
– European interest in China grew—Ming not interest in
Europe “we own the world”
• Portuguese wanted Chinese silks and porcelain-nothing to
– European textile and metalwork inferior
– Chinese demanded gold and silver
• Eventually Chinese allowed trade at Macao-near Canton
modern day Guangzhou
– Could only trade at Canton under supervision of Imperial
– When trading season ended-that’s it-foreigners had to leave
• Early 1600s Ming dynasty declining
– Manchurian invaders pushed through Great Wall made way
to Beijing and made capital
– Founding of Qing dynasty
• Kangxi: 1661-1722: Extended Chinese power to Central Asia and
promoted Chinese culture
• Quianlong1736-1796: Expanded China’s borders
– Economy expanded under both emperors
– New crops from Americas introduced-contributed to population boom
 Population rose from 140 million to over 300 million in 40 years
– Silk, cotton, porcelain industries expanded-trade grew
– Demand for Chinese goods
– Europeans still want in-Chinese still say no
• 1793-examples of British made goods to show
advantages of trade with Westerners
– Thought were crude products
– Misunderstandings—no trade
– Didn’t think should trade with Britain-ruled the world’s
greatest empire
• Korea adopted policy of isolation
– Before 1500s, traded across East Asia-Japan to
– 1592 and 1597 Japanese invaded Korea-drove out in
• Disastrous for Korea-famine, disease, population decreased
• 1636-Manchurians invade
– Under Qing dynasty-had own government, but had to
acknowledge China’s supremacy
– Only trade with Chinese and a few Japanese
– Shipwrecked European sailors imprisoned and held as spies
– Isolated for about 250 years
• Japan at first welcomed European traders
– 1543: Portuguese, then Spanish, Dutch,
– Turbulent time: daimyo struggling for
• Adopted Western firearms-may have helped to
centralize power and impose order
• Some curious about Christianity-many adopted the
• Printing press
– Learned of Spain’s conquest of Philippines
• Grew hostile toward foreigners
• Worried newly converted Japanese Christians gave allegiance
to pope not Japanese leaders
– Expelled foreigners; killed Japanese Christians
• 1638-Barred all European traders and did not allow Japanese
to travel abroad
• Outlawed building of large ships
• Permitted 1-2 Dutch ships/year to trade at Nagasaki
• Remained isolated for over 200 years
• Use notes to write a topic sentence. Then
write 3 supporting sentences and a final
closing sentence.
• Use your four topic sentences as a starting
point to write a summary of your notes.
• Socratic Seminar Expectations
• A Socratic seminar is a way of teaching founded
by the Greek philosopher Socrates.
Socrates believed that students learn best by
asking questions.
It is the teacher’s job to moderate the discussion
instead of leading the discussion.
• How do we prepare for a Socratic
The day prior to the seminar you will be asked
to prepare questions of a certain “level.”
It is essential you read the text and prepare
yourself with important questions and
What will the seminar look like?
The classroom will be arranged in two concentric circles.
You will be assigned to either seminar A or seminar B.
You will be assigned a partner in the opposite seminar.
If I am in seminar A my partner will be in seminar B
Mr./Ms. Teacher will be facilitating, but NOT participating
in the seminar.
• What’s the deal with partners?
• If I am in Seminar B, I will be sitting in the outside circle taking
notes for my partner who is in the inner circle participating in the
Seminar A.
• Then we will switch. I will participate in the seminar and my partner
will take notes for me.
• We will be compiling notes at the end of each seminar to be used
for a final reflection.
• How does the discussion work in a seminar?
• The seminar is to serve as a discussion, not a lecture. Just like in a
casual conversation, no one begins the conversation; a conversation
begins naturally.
Seminar Guidelines
Please listen and look at each other when you speak.
One person speaks at a time.
Each person will have a chance to ask a question.
Respond to the person who asks the question.
Use evidence from the text to support yourself.
Always treat each other with mutual respect.
• What happens when it’s over?
• You will be asked to complete a final reflection with specific
• Then you will turn in your work.
• Socratic Seminar Questions
• Level 1 (Knowledge Questions):
• Knowledge means being able to show understanding by talking,
writing, signing, drawing.
• Please use the following stems in creating your Knowledge
Can you state, in your own words?
Can you describe?
Can you defend your position?
Can you summarize the information?
• Level II (Application Questions):
• Application means supporting your ideas with evidence.
• Please use the following stems in creating your Application
Explain how …
Explain why …
Interpret the reasons …
Compare and contrast …
Connect and explain …
• Level III (Synthesis Questions):
• Synthesis means combining or connecting two different elements.
• In terms of the Socratic Seminar you will be connecting two
different ideas from one text, two texts with each other, OR
connecting a text to the outside world.
• Please use the following stems in creating your Synthesis
Imagine …
What would happen if …?
Hypothesize …
Theorize …
How is <Text name> similar to <insert idea from Outside World>?
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