Typical Development: Infancy Through Early School Years

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• DEVELOPMENT OF
SPEECH
SOUNDS
I. DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS
• A. Introduction
When we gather case
histories…
II. INFANT SPEECH
PRODUCTION
• Youtube
• Baby cooing
• (by Lamialockheart)
• (the video actually shows
• the phonation stage)
Owens, Farinella, & Metz 2015:
Owens, Metz, & Farinella, 2015: (continued)
• Infraphonological Stage
1—Phonation--birth to 2
months
Infraphonological Stage 2
Infraphonological Stage 3
Infraphonological stage 4
Youtube talking twin babies
(reduplicated babbling)
• Universal stages of language
acquisition -- Variegated babbling
• Laura McGarrity
III. INTEGRATIVE STAGE**
• Onset of speech; may last till 18 mos. old,
include first true words
• Jargon: meaningful words combined with
nonmeaningful babbled sounds
• Gibberish: Sequenced but nonmeaningful
syllables produced with adult-like
prosody
IV. TRANSITION
PERIOD: PROTOWORDS
Adult
speech
babbling
protowords
Protowords are
V. FIRST REAL WORDS:
MEANINGFUL SPEECH**
– 1. Stable—consistently produced
– 2. Used in a particular stimulus
context
– 3. Must resemble the adult form
– 4. predictable consequence (e.g.,
adult reaction)
Youtube example of real
words
• 15 month old baby girl answers
Mama's questions
VI. SOUND SYSTEM
DEVELOPMENT**
• A. Single Phonemes
– Age of development: 50% of
children produce sound
accurately
– Age of mastery: 75-90% of
children produce sound
accurately:
Mastery--I am very
interested in this info for
test 1 
B. Consonant Clusters
• Information is contradictory
• Please know the bullet-pointed list of
conclusions on p. 164
Consonant clusters
C. Vowels
VII. COMMON ERRORS
• A. Liquids
• B. Nasals
C. Alveolar and Palatal Fricatives
and Affricates
D. Glides
E. Labial and Dental Fricatives
•
F. Stops
G. Consonant Clusters**
• Obstruents: stops, fricatives, affricates
(everything except glides, liquids, and nasals)
• ***usually clusters are reduced to the
obstruent***
• Obstruent + /w/ clusters reduced to the obstruent
• tɪn/twɪn
kæk/kwæk
• Obstruent + /l/ clusters reduced to the
obstruent
• fiŋ/fliŋ
gæd/glæd
In consonant clusters…
• Obstruent + /r/ clusters ↓ to obstruent**
• taɪ/traɪ
kik/krik
• Clusters with /s/ + consonant ↓ to /w/, nasal, or
stop component of the cluster
– wap/stap
pɪt/spɪt
nɪf/snɪf
• Three-member clusters (e.g., squirrel) usually ↓
to stop
– piŋ/spriŋ
kɜ:ʳl/skwɜ:ʳl
VIII. INTELLIGIBILITY
OF SPEECH
• By 5 years old, most
typically-developing ch
are nearly 100%
understandable
Hilarious youtube video
• 5 year old tries to have a conversation
with Siri
• Do you hear any speech sound errors?
• please memo for test; p. 175)
IX. NORMAL DEVELOPMENT:
PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES**
• Researchers have boiled this down to
processes disappearing and persisting
after 3 years of age
– This helps us know what to treat in
therapy and what not to worry
about
A. Processes Disappearing by 3 yrs.
B. Processes Persisting After 3 yrs.
Processes persisting after 3 (cont.)
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