marthoma history

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Traditional Locations Where the Apostles Preached and Died
Jesus the Carpenter sold Thomas as a slave
builder to Habban the Ambassador of King
Gondaphores of Taxila for 30 pieces of silver
SILK ROUTE
Bombay
Kodungaloor
(Muziris)
St. Thomas AD 52 -72
Cranganur where
Thomas landed
Romans called it Muziris
THONDACCHAN AND THE FOUR SILVER COINS
At the time when the Kambiam Vallapil Nair Tharavad received these four silver coins from
St.Thomas, they were unaware of it's correct origin or native name. They called it 'Rakta
Velli'(Blood-Silver) or 'Parindhu Velli'(Eagle-Silver). Later they were allegedly identified as
Shekels of Tyre, a common currency of Jerusalem
Gondophares
Indo-Parthian king
was baptized by St.Thomas in
Taxila
Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the
Indo-Parthian Kingdom.
Obv: Bust of Gondophares and Greek legend:
BACIΛEΩC CΩTHPOC VNΔOΦEPPOV
"King Gondophares, the Saviour".
Rev: Winged Nike holding a diadem, with a Kharoshti legend:
MAHARAJASA GUDAPHANISA TRATARASA
"King Gondophares, the Saviour".
China
Indoparthian
TAXILA
King
Gondaphores
Kavery
Mylapore
Kodungallur
St. Thomas
the Apostle
was
martyred
(pierced
with a
lance) on
July 3, 72
AD at
Mylapore as
he was
praying in a
mountain
cave
Acts of Thomas
AD 200-222
By
Bardesan
the Syrian Philosopher – Poet
When Thomas arrived the religious
scenario was:
Aryan Vedic Religion
Almost dead
Budhism
Jainism
ACTS OF THOMAS
BARDESANES OF SYRIA 220 AD
The relics of Thomas was moved to Edessa by
Vasudeva !
From there it was later moved to Ortona, Italy
The current status of the Relics preserved at Ortona - Italy
"Mazdai" of Act of Thomas
Vaseduva I gold coin
Vaseduva I may have been the Indian king who returned the relics
of the Apostle St. Thomas from India to Edessa in 232 CE.
The Indian king is named as "Mazdai" in Act of Thomas,
"Misdeos" and "Misdeus" in Greek and Latin sources, is
"Bazdeo" on the Kushan coinage of Vasudeva I
Many Keralites became Christians
even before
St. Peter reached
Rome in 68 A.D.
There are around 9 million
Christians in Kerala at present.
In Kerala
Aryan Vedic Religion
All Brahmins became Christians
We claim inheritance from those
Brahmin families
Budhism
These are atheistic
religions.
Jainism
They died out in
Kerala
The 7 churches were
1.Cranganore (Maliankara)
2. Chavakad (Palur)
3. Parur near Alwaye
4. Gokamangalam,
5. Niranam
6. Nilakkal (Chayal)
7. Quilon (Kalyan).
Nilakkal is near Sabarimala,
MALABAR CHRISTIANS OF ANCIENT DAYS
Thomas ministry extended all over India and
beyond. There must have existed churches all over
India.
Barthelomew also came to India. There must
have existed churches all over India.
He brought the Gospel of Mathew to India
Pantaneus 180 AD
reports
CHRISTIANITY became HINDUISM
Through the Gnostic heresy from Iran
Through the heretic called Manicaen
Who came to India in 3rd C
Hinduism is a Christian Heresy
Vaishnavism
Saivism
We know that:
Christianity was in India
There existed a thriving
Christian community in
Kerala at that time.
Among the Dravidians in
Central India (Kaveri Area)
there was a Church
as early as 293 AD
72 families of Christians of Vellala origin from Kavery
Poopatanam of Pulur District on the River Kaveri arrived
in Kollam (Quilon) in Kerala as refugees fleeing from the
persecution in AD 293.
One Maniccavachagar
followed them in AD 315
and reconverted them back
to the Gnosticism.
Historically well documented Christian Kingdom
of Villarvattom Pana Dynasty
lasted nearly a millennium from 510 to 1439 AD.
This kingdom was destroyed at the coming of the
Portugese and the invasion of Roman Catholicism
was the main religion
of
Kerala
until
8thC AD
7th Century Persian Cross at the Kottayam St.Mary's Church
(Valiyapally)
Mahapilla’ or Mapila
(Great Sons = Sons of the
Kings)
Kerala was ruled
by Christians till
800 AD
“Nazrani"
(People who
follow Nazarenes)
Mor Sabor is believed to have been based at Quilon and
Mor Aphroth at Udayamperoor. Some accounts suggest that
Mor Aphroth was based at Kodungalloor.
Mor Aphroth is believed to have been instrumental in the
conversion of the royal family of Udayamperoor to
Christianity.
Chepped kept in the Marthoma Church Head Quarters Thiruvalla.
The Bishops who came from
Babylonian Patriarchate were
Nestorians.
Though there were such ecclesiastical
connections and ministrations, the
Church in Malabar was independent in
administration under its own
Archdeacons. .
The Church in India founded by
St.Thomas the Apostle,
remained monolithic till the
advent of European
missionaries in the 15th
century.
Since there were no Bibles in Malayalam, they brought Syrian
priests to read and interpret them .
Read and explained the Bible
Clergy from Syria
Conducted rituals and
looked after Spiritual
Matters
All Administrative jobs of the Church
Elected Archdecons
Church
An English journalist attended Sunday service in
a local church in Kerala.
The priestly robes
resembled the dress code of the
Jewish high priests.
The liturgy
was written and recited in high tone,
in
'Syriac'
(a derivative Edessene dialect
of Aramaic
which Jesus Christ Himself used).
St. James Liturgy
Nestorius
was mentioned as a bishop in it.
The Assyrian Church
of the East
The Nestorian Church,
Trissur
Mar Aprem
Kerala Christians followed the Syrian liturgy.
Hence they were called Syrian Christians.
Vasco De Gama
1498
Portugese
Colonization
ST. FRANCIS XAVIER: 1542
June 20, 1599
at the Village of Udayampoor,
Synod of Diampur.
153 Syrian priests and approximately 600 lay
representatives were forced to sign the synod
documents in which they "promised obedience and
submission to the Roman Pontiff".
All documents of Kerala Christians were burned
We lost all our history prior to this period.
"We prohibit, also, the permitting of the laity to
have the books of the Old or New Testament,
unless any one should wish, from a feeling of
devotion, to have a Psalter or Breviary, for divine
service, or the Hours of the Blessed Virgin. But we
strictly forbid them to have the above-mentioned
books in the vulgar tongue."
Synod of Toulouse 1229
Portugese
Dutch
Denmark
French British
Portugese
settlements:
Cannore
Mahi
Calicut
Cochin
THE DUTCH WEST INDIA
COMPANY
(De Westindische Compagnie),
3rd of June 1621.
Dutch Colonization
Dutch
were
Protestants
Syrian Orthodox Patriarch
Moran Mor Ignatius Ahattulla
(Abdulla of Turabdin)
enroute
he was imprisoned
by the Portuguese navy
and
was murdered and
drowned in sea in AD. 1653,
by the Portuguese and
their Roman Catholic counterparts.
Makaram 3rd, Friday
3rd January 1653 AD
at
Mattancherry,
under the leadership of
Archdeacon Thomas and a Knanaya priest,
Anjilimmoottil Ittythomman Kathanar (Rev. Itty Thomas),
about 25000 Syrian Christians held on to a rope tied to a
leaning cross
(an ancient assyrian cross that had become leaning with
the passage of centuries)
and pledged
“We or our children and their children to
all generations to come will have nothing
to do with the Roman Catholic Church nor
the Pope of Rome from now on."
French Colonization
British India
British India
Colonization brought in
Colonial Exploitation
+
Education and Missionaries
BRITISH EMPIRE
Travancore State
Free – dependent
Viceroy
Christians were given lot of privileges.
School system of education started.
1813 English Christian missionaries came to India
They started Schools and colleges and Seminaries
The first Anglican mission (Church Mission Society) started to work
in Kerala in 1816.
Malayalam grammar was written Hermen Gondert in 1872
They started English schools and published the Bible in Malayalam.
Hermen Gondert
The Synod of Mavelikara (1818)
officially decided to have close
Cooperation between
the missionaries and the Syrians.
Kottayam Pazhaya Seminary
Kottayam CMS Press (1821)
by Benjamin Baily.
The first newspaper was the
'Rajya Samacharam‘ (National News)
which was printed at Basel Missions Press in 1847
'Jyana Nikshepam'(Knowledge Compendium)
News paper was started in 1847 by Bailey
1829:Through the efforts of Rev. Benjamin Bailey a
Malayalam New Testament
is published
He was the first Principal of the Kottayam CMS College.
1836 the Malankara Church decided to sever all ties with
CMS
1836 March 8:C.M.S. Missionaries and
their supporters meet at Mallapally and
inaugurate the Anglican Church.
1837-1845:
Abraham Malpan of Palakunnathu
(Maramon)
starts
Reform Movement
The changes made by Abraham Malpan in the liturgy of the Holy Communion
were as follows:
•
All invocations to the saints were removed.
•
•
All prayers for the dead were removed.
•
In the prayer of consecration of the bread in Holy communion the
prayer, "Thee who holdest the extremities of the universe, I hold in my
hand; Thee, who rulest the depths, I grasp with my hand", and the
statement at the time of partaking of the bread, "Thee, who are God, I
put into my mouth", were deleted.
•
Instead of the prayer: "We offer into Thee, O Lord, this bloodless
sacrifice (referring to the Eucharist) on behalf of Thy Holy Church which
is in all the world", the following prayer was inserted: "We offer into
Thee, O Lord, this prayer on behalf of Thy Holy Church which is in all
the world", leaving out the words "bloodless sacrifice" and inserting
instead "this prayer".
•
The declaration that “Living Sacrifice is offered” (the reference is again
to the Eucharist), was changed into: "living sacrifice, which is the
sacrifice of grace, peace, and praise".
The declaration: "this Eucharist is sacrifice and praise" was deleted.
•
The declaration that “the Holy Spirit is the sanctifier of the censor” was
deleted.
•
The note that the censor should be sanctified was taken away.
The prayer: “Let Him (Holy Spirit) make this bread the life-giving and saving
body of Jesus Christ”, was replaced by: “Let Him (Holy Spirit) come upon and
make this bread to those who partake of it, the body of Jesus Christ for the
remission of sins and life everlasting”. (This clearly teaches the Receptionist
Theory.)
•
The prayer: "Thou are the hard rock which was set against the tomb of
our Redeemer" (referring to the Eucharist bread), was replaced by: “Thou art
that tested and precious hard rock rejected by the builders” (converted it into a
reference to Christ).
•
The following changes were made to the practices of the Church:
It was decided that the Eucharist should be administered in both kinds.
The practice of auricular confession and obtaining absolution from the priests
was abolished.
•
The practice of celebrating the Eucharist when there was nobody to
partake of it was abolished
He translated Holy Qurbana into Malayalam.
He eliminated prayers for the dead in 1837 for which they were
excommunicated by Dionysius IV in 1837. He retreated to his parish at
Maramon and celebrated this Qurbana.
He drowned the wooden image of a saint called Moothappan from the
Church.
He sent his nephew Deacon Mathew, who was then studying in Madras,
to the Patriarch at Mardin in Syria. The Patriarch, ordained him as
priest and consecrated him as Metropolitan, with the name
Rt. Rev. Mathews Mar Athanasius Metrapolitan
( 1843 - 1877 )
Mathews Mar Athanasius got the royal proclamation in 1852 declaring
him as the Metropolitan of the Malankara Church.
Malankara Throne
Used in 1655 onward
1875 Mathews Mar Athanasius was deposed by
Ignatius Mar Peter IV, patriarch of Antioch, who visited India
that year.
Consequent to this excommunication, Mar Athanasius and his
followers were deprived of all the churches and properties.
The Church plunged into a litigation known as the
'Seminary Case'. ".
LOGO
of
THE MARTHOMA CHURCH
Valia Metropolitan (Retired)
Most Rev. Dr. Philipose Mar Chrysostom Mar
Thoma
Metropolitan
Rt. Rev. Dr. Joseph Mar Irenaeus
Poolatheen, Tiruvalla - 689 101
Phone: 0469 2630 313, 0469 2601210
E-mail: [email protected]
[email protected]
Episcopa
( North America, UK & Europe Diocese)
Rt. Rev. Dr. Euyakim Mar Coorilos
Sinai Mar Thoma Center,
2320, S. Merrick Avenue,
Merrick
NY- 11566, USA
Phone: 001 516 377 3311
Fax: 001 516 377 3322
E mail: [email protected]
Maramon Convention
Suffragon Metropolitan
( Diocese of Chengannur-Mavelikara)
Rt. Rev. Dr. Zacharias Mar Theophilus
Oliver Aramana, Thittamel, Chengannur - 689 121
Phone: 0479 2454747
E-mail: [email protected]
Episcopa
( Ranni – Nilackal Diocese)
Rt. Rev. Geevarghese Mar Athanasius
Mar Thoma Centre,
Mandiram PO,
Ranni - 689 672
Phone: 04735 227487, 04735 227511,
04735 227760 (P)
Fax: 04735 227511
E- Mail: [email protected]
Episcopa
(Dioceses of Chennai-Bangalore
& Malaysia-Singapore & Australia)
Rt. Rev. Geevarghese Mar Theodosius
Mar Thoma Bhavan,
77,6th Avenue, Harrington Road,
Chelpet, Chennai- 600 031
Phone: 044 28363165, 28362705 (P)
Fax: 044 28363165
E-mail: [email protected]
Episcopa ( Mumbai & Delhi Dioceses)
Rt. Rev.Joseph Mar Barnabas
Mumbai address:Mumbai Marthoma
Centre,
Sector 10 A, Plot No: 18,Vasi
Navi Mumbai - 400 703
Phone: 022 2766 9484 , 022 27657141
(P), 022 27650005
Fax: 022 27657141
E-mail: [email protected]
Delhi Address: Mar Thoma Centre, 26,
Bhai Vir Singh Marg, Gol Market, New
Delhi - 110 001
Episcopa
(Kunnamkulam - Malabar Dioceses)
Rt. Rev. Thomas Mar Timotheos
Mar Thoma Centre,
Makkada PO,
Kakkodi,
Kozhikode - 673 617
Phone : 0495 2265 773, 2265796,
2266957 (P)
Fax: 0495 2267641
E-mail: [email protected]
[email protected]
Episcopa ( Kottayam - Kochi Diocese)
Rt. Rev.Dr. Issac Mar Philoxenos
Bethel Aramana,
Manganam PO,
Kottayam - 686 018
Phone : 0481 2578 420, 0481 2573 737 (P)
Fax: 0481 2571879
E-mail: [email protected]
Rt. Rev. Dr. Abraham Mar Paulose,
Mar Thoma Kendram, Mannanthaia PO.,
Thiruvanathapuram - 695 015
Phone : 04712 530540
Fax: 0471 25311535
Email : [email protected]
The Apostolic Succession of the Throne of St. Thomas
after the re-establishment of the episcopacy in the
seventeenth century is as follows.
The throne used for this consecration in 1655 is still in the possession of the
Mar Thoma Church
The Apostolic Succession of the Throne of St. Thomas
after the re-establishment of the episcopacy in the
seventeenth century is as follows.
Archdeacon, Thomas by name, was duly consecrated with the title
‘Mar Thoma’ in 1665 by Mar Gregorius of Jerusalem who was associated with
the Jacobite Patriarchate of Antioch. Thus the Episcopal continuity was
restored with Mar Thoma I as the first Indian Metropolitan. Thus began the
relation of the Syrian Church with the Antiochene Jacobites. Because of the
relationship with the Syrian Church, the Church in Malankara (Malabar) was
also known as Syrian Church of Malabar.
Mar Thoma I
(1663 - 1670)
(consecrated by 12 priests in 1653
and
by Mar Gregorios of Jerusalem in 1665)
Mar Thoma II (1670 - 1686)
(consecrated by Mar Thoma I and Mar Gergorios in 1669)
Mar Thoma III (1686 - 1688):
(consecrated by Mar Ivanios in 1686)
Mar Thoma IV (1688 - 1728):
(consecrated by Mar Ivanios I in 1688)
Mar Thoma V
(consecrated by Mar Thoma IV in 1728)
(1728 - 1765):
Mar Thoma VI (1765 - 1809): Dionysius I
(consecrated by Mar Thoma V in 1760)
Mar Thoma VII (1808):
(consecrated by Mar Dionysius in 1808)
Mar Thoma VIII (1809 - 1816):
(consecrated by Mar Thoma VII in 1808)
Mar Thoma IX (1816 - 1817):
(consecrated by Mar Thoma VIII in 1816)
Mar Thoma X (1816 - 1817): Pulikot Mar Dionysius II
(consecrated by Mar Philoxenos, Thozhiyoor Church in 1816)
Mar Thoma XI (1817 - 1825): Punnathara Mar Dionysious III
Mar Thoma XII (1827 - 1852): Chepat Mar Dionysisus IV
(consecrated by Mar Philoxenos, Thozhiyoor Church in 1817)
(consecrated by Mar Philoxenos, Thozhiyoor Church)
Mar Thoma XIII (1842 - 1877): Mathews Mar Athanasius
Patriarch of Antioch at Mardin on February 17, 1842)
(consecrated by Moran Mar Elias
Mar Thoma XIV
(1877 - 1893):
Thomas Mar Athanasius
(consecrated by Mathews Mar Athanasius in 1868)
Mar Thoma XV
(1893 - 1909):
Titus I Mar Thoma
(consecrated by Mar Koorilose IV, Thozhiyoor Church in 1893)
Mar Thoma XVI
(1909 - 1944):
Titus II Mar Thoma
(consecrated by Titus I and Geevarghese Mar Koorilose,
Thozhiyoor Church in 1898)
Mar Thoma XVII
(1944 - 1947):
Abraham Mar Thoma
(consecrated by Titus II and Mar Koorilose,
Thozhiyoor Church in 1917)
Mar Thoma XVIII
(1947 - 1976):
Juhanon Mar Thoma
(consecrated by Titus II and Mar Koorilose,
Thozhiyoor Church in 1937)
Mar Thoma XIX
(1976 - 1999):
Alexander Mar Thoma Valia Metropolitian
(consecrated by Juhannon Mar Thoma and
the Metropolitan of the Thozhiyoor Church on May 23, 1953)
Mar Thoma XX
(1999 - 2007):
Philipose Mar Chrysostom Valia Mar Thoma Metropolitan
(consecrated by Alexander Mar Thoma)
Sadhu Kochunju Upadesi
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