V O J T Ě C H D I A T K A C H A R L E S U N I V E R I S T Y P R A G U E 2 4 . 1 1 . 2 0 1 2
Weird words in Hindi and their current treatment in grammars – jhijhak (coyness, hesitating) My proposal how to treat them with introducing a new linguistic category to Hindi linguistics • Concise survey of these weird words • Future research
In Smékal‘s study on reduplication appears one category - Onomatopoeic reduplication It contains typical onomatopoeic words budbudānā – to mumble, to mutter cahcahānā – to twitter ṭ ap ṭ apānā – to drop BUT it contains also weird words mahmah – with fragrance cupcāp – quitely ṭ ak ṭ akī –stare, gaze Smékal 1979
• Complete omission of onomatopoeia Agnihotri(2007), Pořízka(1972) • Brief mention of onomatopoeic words Kachru(2006:122), Shukla(2001:148-150) and Montaut (2004:160)
„Simultaneously, it has to be born in mind that not all the actions described by onomatopoeic words have to be connected with sounds and in this sense are not pure ono words, as we know them from elsewhere. This is a special way of expression typical for more Indian languages where various states and feelings are conveyed by the quasi onomatopoeia.“
They do not imitate sound They are though subsumed under onomatopeia They are in some respects similar to onotopoeic words
Glimmer(ing) Glitter(ing) Twinkling Shimmer(ing) Flicker(ing) Blazing
„poetry in ordinary language“ (Lautmalerei)
(Starry Night Over the Rhone
EVANS-PRITCHARD E. E. (1962)
They stand out from other words: reduplication budbudānā – to bubble, thartharānā – to tremble, to shiver expressive ( marked,subjective element ) cipcipā - sticky, clinging, slimy or greasy semantics
Ideophones are marked words that depict sensory imagery They depict rather than describe He said he was coming. X He said: „I am coming.“
The crucial feature [of ideophones], then, is not “resemblance to” but
“invitation to seeing as” (DINGEMANSE 2011:184)
Ideophones are marked words that depict sensory imagery They represent not only sensations of outer world Hearing, vision, touch, taste and smell but also interoceptive experiences States of mind, subject evaluations, feelings… hakkā-bakkā – confused, perplexed Gudgud - soft, pulpy cakācaudh - glitter
Perceptually exceptional Depict rather than describe Intercoeptive experience Sensation of outer world Reduplication
2.Other traditional senses • It is not meant to be exhaustive list • First survey of ideophones in Hindi • representatives of major word classes – verbs, nouns, adjectives 3.Manners of movement 4.Interoceptive experience
Semantic domains associated with ideophones in Hindi
• Core member of category Ideophones • Words imitating sounds 2.Other traditional senses 3.Manners of movement ka ṭ ka ṭ ānā – to click, to crack (V) susakār – hissing (N) gungunā – mumbling (A) surasurānā - to move like rustling insect (V) pharpharáná – to flutter (as a flag) (V) 4.Interoceptive experience
2.Other traditional senses
3.Manners of movement 4.Interoceptive experience • Words connected with another human senses vision, touch, taste and smell • Not “resemblance to” but “invitation to seeing as” • Not equally distrubuted across all modalities of perception jhilmilānā – to glitter, to shine (V) gudgudāha ṭ – tickling (N) ṭ im ṭ imā – blazing, glittering (A) phusphusā – soft, tender (A) mahmah – with fragrance (I)
• This category is usually widespread across ideophonic languages (JUNOD 1896:196) • Could be subumed under vision 2.Other traditional senses
3.Manners of movement
laplapānā – to spring, to flicker (V) la ṛ kha ṛ āha ṭ – stumbling (N) cha ṭ pa ṭ ā - wriggling (A) thapthapānā – to pat with love (V) tilmilānā – to convulse in pain (V) 4.Interoceptive experience
• Not only we have extero-receptors, but also intero-receptors and proprio-receptors 2.Other traditional senses 3.Manners of movement jhijhaknā – to hesitate (V) hakkābakkā - confused (A) thi ṭ hak - stiffen (I) gadgad – very happy (I) gumsum – thoughtful (I)
Ideophonic meaning is usually inherently vague It is impossible to capture meaning of unit in isolation cha ṭ pa ṭ ānā – to wriggle / to be restless/ to yearn, to long cipcipā – sticky / adhesive / clinging / slimy, greasy
Ideophones are usually understood as a separate category of words (KILIAN-HATZ 2006:510, DINGEMANSE 2011:133) Semantically and functionally – one unique category Syntactically – two categories genuine ideophones Integrated ideophones
(1) (2) ca ṭ -pa ṭ ca ṭ -pa ṭ
capātī - quickly made bread (literally fast bread) patā calegā – it will soon be discovered (it is adverb) Integrated ideophones (1) phusphusā - fragile, brittle, soft, tender (A)
(2) la ṛ kha ṛ āha ṭ
- stumbling, staggering (N) (3) thapthapānā - to pat with affection (V)
DINGEMANSE, M. 2011. Ideophones and the aesthetics of everyday language in a West-African society. The Senses & Society, 6(1), 77-85. DINGEMANSE, M. 2011. The Meaning and Use of Ideophones in Siwu. PhD Thesis. Radbound Univeristy Nijmegen.
SMÉKAL, ODOLEN. 1979. The Reduplicative Formations and Semantic Pairs in Hindi. In Asian and African Linguistic Studies, Studia Orientalia Pragensia IX, Univerzita Karlova.
AGNIHOTRI, RAMA, KANT. 2007. Hindi - An essential grammar. Routledge.
KACHRU, YAMUNA. 2006. Hindi. In London Oriental and African language library, Volume 12, John Benjamins Bublishing.
MONTAUT, ANNIE. 2004. A grammar of Hindi. Lincom Europa.
POŘÍZKA, VINCENT. 1972. Hindština (Hindí language course). Praha: Státní pedagogické nakladatelství. SHUKLA, SHALINGRAM. 2001. Hindi Morphology.
JUNOD, HENRI A. 1896. Grammaire Ronga.
Lausanne: Imprimerie Georges Bridel & Cie.
KILIAN-HATZ,CHRISTINE. 2006. Ideophones. In Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, ed. Keith Brown, 508-512. Oxford: Elsevier.
Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1962. “Ideophones in Zande.” Sudan Notes and Records 34: 143-146. Biblio k poetry in languat