The Clause - Buckeye Valley

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The Clause
Independent versus Dependent
Clauses
What is a clause?
• A clause is a word group that contains a
verb and its subject and that is used as
sentence or part of a sentence.
– Key points – all clauses must have
• A subject
• A verb
Independent clauses
• An independent (or main) clause expresses a
complete thought and can stand by itself as a
sentence.
• Examples:
– The outfielders missed easy fly balls.
– The outfielders missed easy fly balls, and the
infielders were throwing wildly.
– The outfielders missed easy fly balls; the infielders
were throwing wildly.
– The outfielders missed easy fly balls; moreover, the
infielders were throwing wildly.
Ways to combine independent
clauses:
• Comma with a coordinating conjunction
(FANBOYS)
– The outfielders missed easy fly balls, and the
infielders were throwing wildly.
• Semicolon
– The outfielders missed easy fly balls; the infielders
were throwing wildly.
• Semicolon with a conjunctive adverb
– The outfielders missed easy fly balls; moreover, the
infielders were throwing wildly.
Common conjunctive adverbs (p.
493)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
also
anyway
besides
consequently
furthermore
however
instead
likewise
•
•
•
•
•
nevertheless
otherwise
still
then
therefore
Common transitional
expressions
•
•
•
•
•
•
as a result
at any rate
by the way
for example
in addition
in fact
• in other words
• on the contrary
• on the other hand
Subordinate Clauses
• A subordinate (or dependent) clause does
not express a complete thought and
cannot stand alone as a sentence.
– Examples:
• whom we spoke to yesterday
• because no students have applied for them
• Subordinate clauses become part of a
sentence when combined with an
independent clause.
• Examples:
– The woman whom we spoke to yesterday
told us about sources of financial aid for
college applicants.
– Some scholarships are still available because
no students have applied for them.
For each italicized clause, identify as
independent or subordinate.
1.
2.
3.
4.
One of the guests who spoke at the ceremony was
Barbara Jordan.
Whenever I think of Barbara Jordan, I imagine her
a she looks in a picture taken at my mother's
college graduation in 1986.
According to my mother, Jordan spoke eloquently
about the importance of values in our society.
Of course, her choice of subject surprised no one
since Jordan had long been known as an
important and ethical force in American politics.
Uses of Subordinate Clauses
• Adjective clause
– I am now reading this book, which is a
historical novel about the Irish revolt of
1798.
Most adjective clauses begin with a relative pronoun.
Common relative pronouns:
who
whom
whose
which
that
• Adverb clause
– Donna sounds as if she has caught a cold.
– Your stereo is louder than it should be.
– André can type faster than anyone else in his
computer class.
Adverb clauses begin with Subordinating Conjunctions
Common Subordinating Conjunctions:
after
as well as
since
whenever
although
because
so that
where
as
before
than
wherever
as if
even though
though
whether
as long as
if
unless
while
as soon as
in order that
until
why
as though
provided that
when
• Noun clause
– What I need is my own room.
– The happiest time in my life was when we
went to Costa Rica for the summer.
– She believes that lost time is never found
again.
– We will give whoever wins the contest a
prize.
– She has written an article about how she was
elected to the Senate.
Noun clauses are introduced by an
introductory word.
• Common introductory words for noun
clauses
– how
– that
– what
– whatever
– when
where
whether
which
whichever
who
whoever
whom
whomever
whose
why
Identify the following italicized clauses as adj, adv
or noun
In the painting below, you can see (1) that the color and the
hidden location of the Blue Grotto have made it famous.
The grotto is a cavern (2) that can be entered only from the
sea. Do you know (3) where the Blue Grotto is located? It
is on the west side of the Italian island of Capri, (4) which
lies at the entrance to the Bay of Naples. (5) Since the only
opening to the cavern is approximately three feet high,
visitors must lie down in a rowboat to enter the grotto. The
sapphire blue of the water inside the spacious, oval cavern
is created by light (6) that is refracted through the deep
pool. (7) Although the calm, blue water looks inviting, the grotto
is no longer a swimming hole.
In the painting below, you can see (1) that the color and the
hidden location of the Blue Grotto have made it famous.
The grotto is a cavern (2) that can be entered only from the
sea. Do you know (3) where the Blue Grotto is located? It
is on the west side of the Italian island of Capri, (4) which
lies at the entrance to the Bay of Naples. (5) Since the only
opening to the cavern is approximately three feet high,
visitors must lie down in a rowboat to enter the grotto. The
sapphire blue of the water inside the spacious, oval cavern
is created by light (6) that is refracted through the deep
pool. (7) Although the calm, blue water looks inviting, the grotto
is no longer a swimming hole.
Sentences according to structure
• A simple sentence contains one independent
clause and no subordinate clauses.
• A compound sentence contains 2 or more
independent clauses and no subordinate
clauses.
• A complex sentence contains one independent
clause and at least one subordinate clause.
• A compound-complex sentence contains 2 or
more independent clauses and at least one
subordinate clause.
Simple Sentence
• Cora and Kareem bought party supplies at
the mall. [1 sentence; compound subject]
• Later, they drove to school and decorated
the cafeteria for the Ecology Club's annual
banquet. [1 sentence; compound verb]
Compound Sentence
• Cora hung colorful streamers from the
ceiling, and Kareem set party favors on
the tables. [coordinating conjunction]
• After an hour, they took a short break;
then they went back to work. [semicolon]
• They agreed not to take any more breaks;
otherwise, they would be late getting
home. [conjunctive adverb]
Complex Sentence
• When they had finished their work,
they complimented each other on the
results.
–[adverb clause tells when they
complimented]
Compound-Complex Sentence
• Cora waited for just the right moment to
ask Kareem to the banquet, and he
promptly accepted her invitation, adding
that he had been planning to ask her.
– Compound sentence joined with comma and
coordinating conjunction
– Subordinate clause begins with a transitional
phrase, adding that, and is an adverb clause
modifying accepted.
• In-class practice - Exercise 7 pages 505 506
• Homework - Chapter 15 Review, odd
numbered items.
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