Definition Paragraphs What is the Purpose? • To expand a definition by giving further explanation and examples. When will you write this type of paragraph? • As part of an essay, especially in natural & health sciences and humanities • As part of a test there may be questions asking for definitions of terms What does a successful definition paragraph look like? • Topic sentence: Topic (term to be defined)+ general noun+ an adjective clause • Body – Explanation – Examples • Conclusion – refer back to the topic sentence Example Paragraphs Cholera Cholera is an intestinal infection that can be described according to its cause, symptoms, and treatment. A bacterium, called Vibrio cholera, is the causative agent of cholera. It can be spread through contaminated food, water, or feces. Cholera patients may exhibit different symptoms that can vary from mild to severe. Some symptoms are diarrhea and loss of water and salts. Oral or intravenous replacement of fluids and salts as well as specific antibiotics is a possible treatment for cholera. Patients can be treated with an oral rehydration solution or, in severe cases, an intravenous fluid. Cholera is a serious infection that can only be resolved with medical intervention. Example Paragraphs Canine Teeth One of the most important types of teeth in the human mouth is the canines which are the long, sharp teeth found in the front corners of the upper and lower rows of teeth, between the incisors and bicuspids. Because they are long and strong and deeply rooted, they have several functions. First, even though canines do not chew food, they guide the jaw during the chewing process. Second, they shape the face. They can also serve as anchors for other teeth when a dentist puts in bridge work. And finally, as the name "canine" suggests, they work like the teeth of a dog to cut and tear food-and to bite. In sum, the purpose of these essential, sharp teeth is manyfold. Example Paragraphs Assertiveness Assertiveness means standing up for your rights --- politely, but firmly. For example, my friend Teresa is assertive. Once when we were in a restaurant and her hamburger was well done instead of rare, Teresa signaled the waiter and nicely asked if she could return the excellent but well-done burger for one that was a bit rarer. I braced myself for an argument, but the waiter just replaced the burger. Another time as we stood in line for movie tickets, a guy cut in front of Teresa. She tapped him on the shoulder, smiled, and said, "I see there was a gap that looked as if it were the end of the line, but it's really back there." When the guy stared at her and said, "I'll just stay here. You don't mind, right?" She answered, "Well, yes, I do mind." She then made sure the people in back of us were listening and said, "And you're not being fair to all these other people, either." The guy left. Assertiveness helps you get what you want and deserve without creating a scene. Example Paragraphs Gossip. According to The American Heritage Dictionary, gossip is a “trivial rumor of a personal nature,” but this definition makes gossip sound like an activity that is harmless. At first, gossip might not seem so bad. One person tells a second person something about someone, and that second person tells a third, and so on. The information passes from person to person. However, gossip is much more than just information and rumor. As the rumor continues, it grows and changes. People do not know all the facts. They add information. As gossip goes from one person to the next, the damage continues, and the person who is the subject of the gossip can’t do anything to answer or protect himself or herself. Celebrities and regular people suffer from the negative effects of gossip. For example, a current celebrity might lose custody of her children due to gossip that is currently circulating about her. For these reasons, gossiping is a bad habit. Brainstorming Practice • Fraud (n) - a person who pretends to have qualities, abilities, etc. that he does not really have in order to deceive other people • Xenophobia (n) - (disapproving) a strong feeling of dislike or fear of people from other countries Task: Create a topic sentence for one of these words. Use your own ideas: Topic+ general noun+ adjective clause. Or use the quoted definition: According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, topic is, “…” (or paraphrase the quoted definition). Brainstorming Practice Based on your previous choice, now brainstorm about the topic. • Fraud (n)- a person who pretends to have qualities, abilities, etc. that he does not really have in order to deceive other people – Explanation? • Idea One • Idea Two – Examples: • Example One • Example Two • Xenophobia (n) – (disapproving) a strong feeling of dislike or fear of people from other countries •Explanation? •Idea One •Idea Two •Examples: •Example One •Example Two In-Class Writing • Choose one of the following words to define in a paragraph: Philanthropist (n) – a rich person who helps the poor and those in need, especially by giving money Gravy train (n) – a situation where people seem to be making a lot of money without much effort Runaround (v) – to treat someone badly by not telling him the truth of by not giving him the help of the information he needs… Nationalism (n) – (sometimes disapproving) a feeling of love for and pride in your country; a feeling that your country is better than any other Fool’s paradise (n) – a state of happiness that is based on something that is false or cannot last although the happy person does not realize it Paradox (n) – a person, thing or situation that has two opposite features and therefore seems strange • All definitions are from the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Provide your brainstorming and completed paragraph to me by the end of class today. Example Student Paragraph Discrimination According to Heinle’s Dictionary of American English, discrimination means to treat someone unfairly based on race, sex or religion. Discrimination is used by people who believe to be better than others. People who has been discriminated could end up in serious psychological problems. Discrimination makes people think, that they are not worthy. In the United States, discrimination was a way to keep black away from their rights as humans. Black were not allowed to vote. They had to use different bathrooms then white men, and black children could not go to school with white children. Discrimination based on sex was known and it is used by many countries. Also Jews were discriminated because of their religion, for that reason they came to America in hopes to find freedom. Even though we live in a new generation, discrimination is not over. Example Student Paragraph Gravity According to the Intermediate Dictionary of American English, gravity is the force that causes things to drop to the ground. It is an attractive force, which is created by the magnetic field between the south pole and the north pole of the Earth. A good example of void of gravity is the space where everything floats and has no direction. Gravity is commonly used in physics; physicists use its mathematical value, which is equivalent to 9.8 meters per second square (9.8m/s2) , to compute problems. Like for example, gravity is used to measure weight, that is, W=mg where W is the weight, M is the mass, and g is the gravity constant. It can also used to compute potential energy, that is U=mgh, where U is the potential energy, g is the gravity constant, and h is the height of the object from rest. Gravity makes everything stand on the surface of the earth, and it is one of the most important elements or force that keeps the balance of the earth. Everything on the ground is under the pull of gravity. Problematic Sentences Discrimination makes people think, that they are not worthy. Finally, they also a good opportunity in order to be a successful person. On that day, thousands has been killed. It could also cause one to live in fear. Especially, when others in the outside world doing whatever they want. Though human nature is selfish, but I know there are people out there who are just kind for the sake of putting a smile on someone else’s face. The freedom is important that all the world need it. The freedom not just in speech. In fact, this creat an opportunity to see different types of animals such as snakes, lions, tigers.