Sentence Combining

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Sentence Combining
Writing Consultant Presentation
EG 1003: Intro to Engineering and Design
NYU’s Polytechnic School of Engineering
Sentence Combining
 How to combine independent clauses
 Legal combination options
 Avoiding common mistakes
Combining is more readable
 Avoid repeated short, choppy sentences:
“The design was tested. The accuracy was 95%. The robot
was marketable.”
 Eliminate errors of punctuation:
“The hen and the corn set off the alarm, the circuit was a
success.
 Highlight brief sentences with contrast:
“Minimal design was used as the team pooled its
knowledge of balloons. The design was successful.”
Start with independent clauses
 A clause has:
 A subject (noun that performs the action)
 A finite verb (showing number and time)
 Which are independent clauses?
 Precision is the repeatability of a result.
 The robot completing the course.
 Audience and purpose are the basic principles of
professional writing.
Start with independent clauses
 A clause has:
A subject (noun that performs the action)
A finite verb (showing number and time)
 Which are independent clauses?
Precision is the repeatability of a result.
The robot completing the course.
Audience and purpose are the basic
principles of professional writing.
Sentence Combining
 How to combine independent clauses
 Legal combination options
 Avoiding common mistakes
Combine independent clauses legally
1. Colon or semicolon
2. Semicolon with coordinating adverb
3. Comma with coordinating
conjunction
4. Subordinating conjunction
5. Participial phrase transformation
1.
Independent
clause
; or : or .
independent
clause
.
The robot was accurate: it
passed the test.
1.
Independent
clause
2.
Independent
clause
therefore
however
thus
; or : or .
;
independent
clause
coordinating
adverb
meanwhile
accordingly
nevertheless
,
.
independent
clause
then
consequently
furthermore
.
The robot was accurate: it
passed the test.
The robot was accurate;
therefore, it passed the test.
1.
Independent
clause
2.
Independent
clause
therefore
however
thus
; or : or .
;
independent
clause
coordinating
adverb
meanwhile
accordingly
nevertheless
,
.
independent
clause
then
consequently
furthermore
.
The robot was accurate: it
passed the test.
The robot was accurate;
therefore, it passed the test.
The robot was not accurate;
however, it passed the test.
1.
Independent
clause
2.
Independent
clause
; or : or .
3.
Independent
clause
coordinating
adverb
;
therefore
however
thus
independent
clause
meanwhile
accordingly
nevertheless
,
and
but
,
.
independent
clause
.
then
consequently
furthermore
conjunction
for
so
or/nor yet
independent
clause
.
The robot was accurate: it
passed the test.
The robot was accurate;
therefore, it passed the test.
The robot was not accurate;
however, it passed the test.
The robot was accurate, so it
passed the test.
1.
Independent
clause
2.
Independent
clause
; or : or .
;
therefore
however
thus
3.
Independent
clause
independent
clause
coordinating
adverb
meanwhile
accordingly
nevertheless
,
,
independent
clause
.
then
consequently
furthermore
conjunction
for nor
and but
.
or so
yet
independent
clause
.
Fanboys
The robot was accurate: it
passed the test.
The robot was accurate;
therefore, it passed the test.
The robot was not accurate;
however, it passed the test.
The robot was accurate, so it
passed the test.
1.
Independent
clause
2.
Independent
clause
; or : or .
Independent
clause
coordinating
adverb
;
therefore
however
thus
3.
meanwhile
accordingly
nevertheless
,
and
but
4a.
Subordinating
conjunction
While, When/Where(ever)
Even though
However
4b.
Independent
clause
independent
clause
independent
clause
,
The robot was accurate: it
passed the test.
The robot was accurate;
therefore, it passed the test.
The robot was not accurate;
however, it passed the test.
.
.
then
consequently
furthermore
conjunction
independent
clause
The robot was accurate, so it
passed the test.
.
for
so
or/nor yet
dependent
clause
,
independent
clause
Because the robot was
. accurate, it passed the test.
If, In order to
Because, Before
Though
Unless, Until
Although, After, As Since, So that
subordinating
conjunction
dependent
clause
.
The robot was accurate after it
passed the test.
1.
Independent
clause
2.
Independent
clause
; or : or .
Independent
clause
coordinating
adverb
;
therefore
however
thus
3.
meanwhile
accordingly
nevertheless
,
and
but
4a.
Subordinating
conjunction
While, When/Where(ever)
Even though
However
4b.
Independent
clause
independent
clause
independent
clause
,
The robot was accurate: it
passed the test.
The robot was accurate;
therefore, it passed the test.
The robot was not accurate;
however, it passed the test.
.
.
then
consequently
furthermore
conjunction
independent
clause
The robot was accurate, so it
passed the test.
.
for
so
or/nor yet
dependent
clause
,
independent
clause
Because the robot was
. accurate, it passed the test.
If, In order to
Because, Before
Though
Unless, Until
Although, After, As Since, So that
subordinating
conjunction
dependent
clause
.
“We hit a bus.”
The robot was accurate after it
passed the test.
1.
Independent
clause
2.
Independent
clause
; or : or .
Independent
clause
coordinating
adverb
;
therefore
however
thus
3.
meanwhile
accordingly
nevertheless
,
and
but
4a.
Subordinating
conjunction
While, When/Where(ever)
Even though
However
4b.
Independent
clause
independent
clause
independent
clause
,
The robot was accurate: it
passed the test.
The robot was accurate;
therefore, it passed the test.
The robot was not accurate;
however, it passed the test.
.
.
then
consequently
furthermore
conjunction
independent
clause
The robot was accurate, so it
passed the test.
.
for
so
or/nor yet
dependent
clause
,
independent
clause
Because the robot was
. accurate, it passed the test.
If, In order to
Because, Before
Though
Unless, Until
Although, After, As Since, So that
subordinating
conjunction
dependent
clause
.
However the robot was aligned, it
always passed the test.
The robot was accurate after it
passed the test.
1.
Independent
clause
2.
Independent
clause
; or : or .
Independent
clause
coordinating
adverb
;
therefore
however
thus
3.
meanwhile
accordingly
nevertheless
,
and
but
4a.
Subordinating
conjunction
5.
Independent
clause
Participial phrase
,
.
then
consequently
furthermore
conjunction
independent
clause
The robot was accurate, so it
passed the test.
.
for
so
or/nor yet
,
independent
clause
Because the robot was
. accurate, it passed the test.
If, In order to
Because, Before
Though
Unless, Until
Although, After, As Since, So that
subordinating
conjunction
,
The robot was accurate: it
passed the test.
The robot was accurate;
therefore, it passed the test.
The robot was not accurate;
however, it passed the test.
.
independent
clause
dependent
clause
While, When/Where(ever)
Even though
However
4b.
independent
clause
independent
clause
dependent
clause
.
.
However the robot was aligned, it
always passed the test.
The robot was accurate after
it passed the test.
Being accurate, the robot
passed the test.
Sentence Combining
 How to combine independent clauses
 Legal combination options
 Avoiding common mistakes
Conjunctions and adverbs
But, the robot passed the test for accuracy.
Conjunctions combine two things
However, the robot passed the test for accuracy.
Coordinating
adverb
2.
therefore
however
thus
3.
Independent
clause
meanwhile
accordingly
nevertheless
,
and
but
,
independent
clause
.
then
consequently
furthermore
conjunction
for
so
or/nor yet
independent
clause
.
Starting with “because”
Because the robot passed the test.
… end with an independent clause
Because the robot passed the test, it should be put on
the market.
4a.
Subordinating
conjunction
While, When/Where(ever)
Even though
However
dependent
clause
,
independent
clause
.
If, In order to
Because, Before
Though
Unless, Until
Although, After, As Since, So that
Combining with “however”
The robot passed the test for accuracy, however it was
not precise.
“However” rarely subordinates
The robot passed the test for accuracy; however, it was
not precise.
2.
Independent
clause
therefore
however
thus
;
coordinating
adverb
meanwhile
accordingly
nevertheless
,
independent
clause
then
consequently
furthermore
.
Practice with these sentences
 Virtual instruments simulate laboratory instruments.
They do not always replace physical objects.
 The hen and the corn were in the same barn. The
alarm sounded.
Sentence Combining
 How to combine independent clauses
 Legal combination options
 Avoiding common mistakes
EG 1003
1.
Independent
clause
2.
Independent
clause
; or : or .
;
therefore
however*
thus
3.
Independent
clause
,
coordinating
adverb
meanwhile
accordingly
nevertheless
Subordinating
conjunction
.
The robot was accurate; therefore, it
passed the test.
.
The robot was not accurate; however , it
passed the test.*
then
consequently
furthermore
independent
clause
The robot was accurate, so it passed
the test.
.
for or/ so
nor
yet
dependent
clause
,
While, When/Where(ever) If, In order to
Even though
Though
However*
Although, After, As
4b.
Independent
clause
subordinating
conjunction
5.
Participial
phrase
independent
clause
,
The robot was accurate: it passed the test.
independent
clause
,
conjunction
and
but
4a.
independent
clause
independent
clause
However the robot was aligned, it
always passed the test.*
Because, Before
Unless, Until
Since, So that
dependent
clause
.
.
Because the robot was accurate, it
passed the test.
.
The robot was accurate after it
passed the test.
Being accurate, the robot passed
the test.
* Only in the sense of “by whatever means” is however a subordinator; usually, however is an adverb that expresses contrariness, like nevertheless,
on the other hand, or in spite of(this)
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