Introduction

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• INTRODUCTION:
• PERSPECTIVES IN SPEECH
SOUND DISORDERS
• (chapter 3)
Welcome to SPHP 126! We’re
going to have a great semester. 
In this class…
• I will be building bridges
between SPHP 112
(Language Science),
SPHP 126 (Speech
Sound Development and
Disorders),
Phonetics/Speech
Science (SPHP 110),
and SPHP 125 (Child
Language Disorders)
We will take all those floating
puzzle pieces of knowledge
• And begin to fit them together!
We’ll do a fair amount of
phonetic transcription in class…
• But it will not be graded
My new favorite website for
phonetic symbols:
• The Sounds of English and the International
Phonetic Alphabet
• http://www.antimoon.com/how/pronuncsoundsipa.htm
Remember that attendance and
notetaking are very important
I. WHAT IS A SPEECH SOUND
DISODER? (from ch. 1 — not required
reading)
Speech sound
disorder
Phonological
disorder
Articulation
disorder
Back in the old days….
• Our field used the terms phonological
disorder and articulation disorder
Articulation Disorder
Phonological Disorder
A youtube example of a speech
sound disorder
• “Articulation disorder
connected speech
sample”
• Even though she is only
3, she should be more
intelligible than this
II. IMPORTANCE OF INTELLIGIBILITY
Even a mild disorder can have
an impact….
Often…
New research article October 2014:**
• Macrae, T., & Tyler, A.A. (2014). Speech
abilities in preschool children with speech
sound disorder with and without cooccurring language impairment.
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services
in Schools, 45, 302-313.
Macrae & Tyler 2014:**
• Compared preschool children with cooccurring SSD and language impairment
(LI) to children with SSD only
• Looked at numbers and types of errors in
both groups
Macrae and Tyler 2014 found:
III. BRIEF REVIEW OF
ANATOMY
• This is from my visible body app on my
iPad
• Just listen and let the information wash
over you—this is a review from the fall—I
won’t test you on it
IV. PHONETICS: BASIC
DEFINITIONS**
• A. Definition of Phonetics
Study of physical, physiological, and acoustic
variables associated with speech sound
production
• B. Clinical/Applied phonetics (other types of
phonetics on p. 80 are not on test 1)
• Branch dedicated to practical application of
knowledge
• C. Phoneme**
• Family of sounds that the listener perceives
as belonging to the same category-- /t/
• D. Allophone
• Not a distinct phoneme; allophone is a
member of a particular phoneme family
• tea
butter
let
character
• E. Morphemes
Please underline the free morpheme and
circle/highlight the bound morphemes:
• Magically
• Estimated
• Uncool
• Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious
• Dreaming
• Unconventionally
• Predisposition
F. Minimal pairs
G. Morphophonemics**
• Morphophonemic rules specify
how sounds are combined to form
morphemes
• Morphophonemics: sound
alterations that result from the
modification of free morphemes
Examples of morphophonemic
rules:**
• If a noun ends in a voiced sound, use plural
allomorph /z/ (tails, bags, pins)
• If a noun ends in a voiceless sound, use plural
allomorph /s/ (tarts, cops, lakes)
• If a word ends in a voiceless sound, the past tense
is pronounced /t/; if a word ends in a voiced sound,
the past tense is pronounced /d/
• cooked
buzzed
V. Suprasegmental Aspects of
Speech
• A. Juncture
• B. Rate of Speech
We often tell adult accent clients
to MOOSE:
• C. Intonation
VI. PHONEME CLASSIFICATION
• A. Consonants
B. Vowels**
• Produced with an open vocal tract
• 1. Pure vowels (e.g., /a/, /i/, /ɪ/)
• 2. Diphthongs (e.g., /oʊ/, /aɪ/, /aʊ/)
Phonemic diphthongs —if you reduce them to pure
vowels, the meaning changes ( e.g., /aɪ/, /ɔɪ/)
Pipe Pop
Boil  Bowl
Nonphonemic diphthongs —if you reduce them to
pure vowels, the meaning doesn’t change ( e.g., /eɪ/,
/oʊ/ )
VII. CONSONANT**
PRODUCTION
• A. Distinctive Features
• Is a feature absent or present?
• /b/ =
-vocalic, +anterior, -nasal, -strident,
+voice
• B. Place-Voice-Manner (review from 110)
• Voicing—voiced or voiceless
• Manner—how sound is produced
• Place—where sound is produced
1. Place
Place (continued)
2. Manner (how)
Manner (continued)
VIII. VOWEL PRODUCTION**
• A. Tongue Position
– 1. Tongue height
– 2. Tongue advancement
• B. Lip Rounding
– 1. Rounded
– 2. Unrounded
IX. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION**
• A. Introduction
– IPA helps with allographs (E.g. /f/ allographs in
tough, physical, taffy)
• B. Broad Transcription
• Virgules—slashes /b/
transcription (abstract)
/n/
/t/ for phonemic
• Brackets for phonetic transcription [m] (actual
production of the sound by the speaker)
C. Narrow Transcription**
• This uses diacritic markers
• Gives us more detail
• Especially helpful for accent
clients, clients with hearing
loss, cleft palate
X. SYLLABLES**
• Open syllable word
ends in a vowel (free,
my, hello)
• Closed syllable word
ends in a consonant or
consonant cluster
(box, zipper, bed)
XI. PHONOLOGICAL
PROCESSES/PATTERNS**
• A. Definition and Background
• Stampe first described phonological
processes, or simplifications of adult
sound productions that affect entire
classes of sounds
• When my niece Jennifer was 2: “Aunt
Nes” for “Aunt Celeste.” She was using
weak syllable deletion, final consonant
deletion, and an n/l substitution.
Today: (p. 90)**
• The term phonological pattern is
preferred
• Stampe’s phonol. processes are normal in
typically-developing children, but are a
disorder when they persist beyond a certain
age level
• After a normal age of disappearance, we
use the term phonological pattern
For example:
Many people today….**
• Use the terms phonological process and
phonological pattern interchangeably
B. Substitution Patterns
• .
•
Substitution patterns (continued)
Substitution patterns (continued)
Substitution patterns (continued)
C. Assimilation Patterns**
• Definition: One sound changes to resemble another
sound, particularly a neighboring sound
• On the exam, I have not emphasized assimilation—
too easily confused with other patterns. But I’ve seen
it on the Praxis, so let’s do it. 
• Regressive assimilation: Sound that changes
precedes the sound that caused the change
• E.g., instead of saying “lack,” child would say /kæk/;
instead of saying “yum!” the child would say /mʌm/
Progressive assimilation:**
• The sound that changes follows the
sound that influences the change
• E.g., instead of saying “might,” the child
says /maɪm/; instead of saying “ghost,”
the child says /goʊg/
Kinds of Assimilation**
• 1. Alveolar
tom tot
lɪp ɪd
• 2. Nasal
noʊz  noʊn
map  mam
• 3. Velar
kʌp  kʌk dag  gog
• 4. Labial
boʊt  boʊp
• 5. Prevocalic voicing
maʊθ  maʊm
taɪt daɪt
• 6. Postvocalic devoicing fliz flis
D. Syllable Structure Patterns (modify
the syllabic structure of words)**
• 1. Weak/unstressed syllable deletion
– Celeste Lest
tomato meɪdo
• 2. Epenthesis —insertion of schwa between 2
consonants (Mark: Stepuhney/Stepney)
• 3. Reduplication (partial or complete)
• Repetition of a syllable
•
• Complete = baba/bottle****
Syllable structure patterns
continued
Syllable structure patterns continued:**
• 7. Cluster reduction: deletion or
substitution of some or all members of a
cluster
• Cluster deletion: deletion of one or all
members of a cluster.
• Total cluster reduction: all members of the
cluster deleted (-æp/flæp)
• Partial cluster reduction: some members of
a cluster are deleted (fæp/flæp)
Usually…**
• The marked (more difficult) sound is
deleted
• Underline the marked sound
• Spoon
• Squirrel
• Pretty
Post
black
glad
just
bowl
trip
Again, marked is harder; unmarked
is easier;transcribe Dr. R’s
production phonetically:**
Squirrel
Truck
Spit
Stone
Brain
Pray
Syllable structure patterns continued:**
• Cluster substitution: another sound
replaces one or all members of the cluster
• Examples: twi/tri, pwiz/pliz, bun/spun
Pwiz take
me to the
twi!
Remember that our goal:
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