power point 34

The Road to World War II
Keys to the Chapter
Tripartite Pact
Spanish Civil War
Neutrality Acts
Germany Starts War 9/1/39
Atlantic Conference
Japanese Embargo
Isolationism -Nationalism
• London Conference- USA first agrees to go to
help world economic crisis then backs away
• Philippines Independence- We agree to their
independence in 12 years (1946) –TydingsMcDuffie Act of 1934
• Recognize Russia to help trade and have allie
against Germany (1933)
• Good Neighbor Policy – To reduce hatred and
increase trade with Latin America - make S.A. an ally
against Europe:
– Endorse non-intervention in domestic issues in
Latin America (renouncing Roosevelt Corollary)
– Withdraw from Haiti
– Reduce enforcement of Platt Amendment
– Not intervene in Mexico when it nationalizes oil
companies (tells companies to negotiate)
• 1934 – Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
– FDR could lower tariffs if others did the same
No approval of Senate to avoid politics &
time delays
– By 1939 – 21 countries had trade agreements with
US; US trade increased as a result
• USSR – Joseph Stalin
• Germany – Adolf Hitler
• Italy – Benito Mussolini
They rise to power from chaos caused by WWI
and in 1936 Hitler aligns with Mussolini in the
Rome-Berlin Axis.
and Hitler
the RomeBerlin Axis
of 1936
• Nationalist militarists in Japan
– Resented Europe/America limit on growth
– 1934 – Japan terminated Naval Treaty that
had set a limit of ships on 5:5:3
– 1935 – Naval conference in London
• Japan demanded equality with US and
Britain (5:5:5) but is refused and walks out
– Japan begins crash naval build-up of ships
– 1935 – Japan withdrew from League of Nations
– 1940 – Tripartite Pact between Japan,
Germany, and Italy
• Isolationism in the US increased in
response to problems in Asia and Europe
– Believed oceans protected the US
– Disillusionment from false hopes of “democracy”
after World War I
– Anger at Allies who had defaulted on WWI debts
– Many support amendment requiring people vote
for War directly
• Neutrality Acts
– Isolationists were majority in Congress
through 1938
– 3 separate laws (1935, 1936, 1937)
• Neutrality Act of 1935
– President authorized to prohibit all arms shipments and
forbid US citizens to travel on ships of belligerent nations
• Neutrality Act of 1936
– Outlaw extension of loans and credit to belligerents
• Neutrality Act of 1937
– Ban shipment of arms to opposing sides in Spain civil war
No Foreign
------------A False Hope
• US and the Spanish Civil War 1936-39
– At first, because this was a civil war, US could ship
munitions to Loyalist government
– 1937 Neutrality Act forbade shipment to either
side and Loyalists will loss war
– US stays out but Germany and Italy don’t so
dictators are encouraged by their victory and the
placement of Francisco Franco as Spain’s dictator
• 1937 – Japan invades China; FDR says not a war
– Allowed the US to continue shipping small amount of
munitions to China (which US wanted to help)
– Japan could purchase war material (because the US
had to be neutral, even though US opposed to Japan
fighting and winning this war)
– Japan commits atrocities against the Chinese people
October 1937 FDR makes Quarantine
Speech: OK’s use of Economic Embargoes
against aggressor nations - angers
Germany Gets Aggressive
• Hitler’s violates Treaty of Versailles claiming he only
wants what “rightfully belongs to Germany”:
– 1935 – introduced draft in Germany
– 1936 – troops marched into demilitarized Rhineland
– 1930s – progression of attacks on German Jews
– 1930s – built German mechanized army and air force
– 1938 – The bloodless takeover of Austria
– 1938 – Munich Conference and British appease Hitler
who promises he wants no further land. Chamberlain
“we have achieved peace in our lifetime”
{Churchill ridicules this in Parliament)
Neville Chamberlain: “Peace in Our Life Time” after Munich
Sept. 1938
March 1939 – Hitler takes Rest of Czechoslovakia
So much for “Peace in our Life time”
August 1939 they sign non-aggression pact
• Late August 1939 – Hitler demands German
land given to Poland after WWI
– Poland refuses and asks for help
– Britain and France promise to defend Poland
– Hitler no longer fears Russia & their pact allows
Russia a little of Poland while Hitler grabs the rest
• September 1, 1939 – Hitler attacks Poland
(blitzkrieg – lighting war) and WWII Starts
– Britain and France declare war against Germany
– Poland defeated in 3 weeks (brutal massacre of
tanks against horses)
– USSR entered from east to split Poland with
• part of a secret agreement Hitler & Stalin made
Why is Poland
surprised at
what was the
obvious result
of Hitler/Stalin
• US response to Germany attack on Poland:
– Roosevelt issues statement of neutrality
– US opinion overwhelmingly anti-German, but did
not want to be sucked into the war
– US debated whether to assist Britain and France
• Neutrality Act of 1936 barred US from sending
these countries arms or other assistance
• Neutrality Act of 1939 favors European democracies
– Set up “cash-and-carry” policy
• Europeans could buy US war materials, but
would have to pay cash and transport them in
their own ships to avoid attacks on US ships
• Effects of cash-and-carry is to help allies because
they control the seas but hurts China since Japan
controls the Pacific
• October 1939 to March 1940 Hitler “quiet” as he
realigns troops to attack France while at the same
time “hinting” he would like to achieve peace.
1933-40 as
through the
eyes of an
War Heats Up
• April 1940 – Hitler attacks Denmark and Norway
• May 1940 – Hitler attacks Netherlands and Belgium
• May/ June 1940 – Germans attack and defeat
France, with Italy attacking from the South
– British evacuate most of their troops in frantic transport
across English Channel at Dunkirk
• Chamberlain resigns and Winston Churchill elected
as prime minister of England
British Evacuation at Dunkirk
• America takes action with fall of France because
fear that if British fall Germany would become
master of Europe and Oceans:
• Congress appropriates $37B for military
build up
–5X larger than New Deal annual budget
– June 1940 – conscription (draft) started for first
time ever during peacetime
-August 1940 Battle of Britain begins &Royal air
force prevents quick German invasion
-America agrees to help British by any means
short of war
German Bombers over London During the Battle of
Britain - 1940
the fight for
• September 2, 1940 – Destroyers for bases
– US transferred 50 old destroyers to Britain
– Britain gives US 8 valuable defensive bases in Western
Hemisphere (99-year rent-free leases)
– Americans okay anything “short of war”.
FDR says he wants to retire but instead runs for
third term because of war threat---Promises that “our boys will not fight”---beats
Willkie with slogan “better a third termer rather
than a third rater”.
Congress Passes Lend-Lease Law March 1941
Defended as law that would keep us out of war:
• US sends weapons instead of soldiers
• US would be “arsenal of democracy”
• Britain to give used weapons or equivalent back
when war was over
– Criticism from isolationists or anti-Roosevelt Republicans
– FDR compares it to lending a hose to a neighbor when his
house is on fire – just give it back when fire over
– Isolationists argue it is more like lending chewing gum
• no one will want it back
• Effects of the Lend-Lease Law
Billions worth of supplies sent to Allies
Abandonment of even pretense of neutrality
Increased production in factories; helped prepare for war
Germany began sinking US merchant ships
• June 22, 1941 – Hitler attacked USSR
– (Operation Barbarossa) – a three prong attack
– Hoped to knock USSR out and use their supplies (oil) to
defeat Britain
• Roosevelt used lend-lease to give USSR $
• Hitler held back at Moscow in December 1941 by
Soviet army and early Russian winter
view of
attack on
• August 1941 – the Atlantic Charter
– Roosevelt secretly met Winston Churchill on
ship off Newfoundland; USSR agreed to it
later that year
– 8 points outlined plans for postwar world
• Self-determination for former colonies
• Restoration of govt’s taken by dictators
• Disarmament
• New League of Nations (eventually U.N.)
• Mid-1940 – Roosevelt bans sale of aviation
fuel and scrap metal to Japan
• September 1940 – Embargo extended to
steel and other materials
• July 1941 – Freeze all Japanese assets and
bank accounts in US and impose total
trade embargo with Japan
• Fall 1941 talks with Japan to negotiate
trade and peace but Japan unwilling to
back away from territory gained
• December 7, 1941 – attack at Pearl Harbor
– 3 hour attack on Sunday morning
– 2,400 Americans killed & 200 planes destroyed
– 3 aircraft carriers out of harbor and not hit
– Roosevelt – “a date which will live in infamy “
• December 11, 1941 – Italy, Germany declared war
on America