Council of Constance

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Council of Constance
1414-1418
Konstanz, Germany
1
November 6, 2012
Obama wins! He announces he has been elected
President of the United States. He presides in
Washington, D. C.
Newt Gingrich, however, announces he is the
President of the United States. His presidential
estate is in Georgia.
Ron Paul also announces he is the winner of the
presidency, and he presides in Texas!
2
This is similar to what happened in the
early 1400’s. at that time,Three men
claimed to be pope.
Benedict XIII
Gregory XII
John XXIII
3
All three wanted to be the pope, and this
caused a great division in the Catholic
church.
Benedict XIII
Gregory XII
4
John XXIII
So the king of the Romans, Sigismund,
and one of the popes, John XXIII, called
for a council to take place at Constance,
Germany, to solve the problem of who
would be pope. The first meeting was
scheduled for November 1, 1414, but
Sigismund did not arrive until Christmas
Eve.
5
At this time, Constance had 5500
residents and was beautifully located on
the lake, with fields and vineyards.
6
Constance, Germany, is on Lake Constance
and borders Switzerland.
7
8
9
10
The Rhine River flows through the city.
11
An old guard
tower of the city.
12
Old gate to the city
13
When John XXIII arrived (about November),
he was accompanied by 9 cardinals and
1600 mounted horsemen. He rode a white
horse, its back covered with a red rug. Its
bridles were held by a count on one side and
and another dignitary on the other side.
14
King Sigismund arrived Christmas Eve,
and Christmas day the imperial party went
to the cathedral to greet the pope (John
XXIII). Christmas services were then held
in the cathedral for 8 to 11 hours, without
interruption.
15
King Sigismund and
his wife, Barbara, at
the Council of
Constance
16
Constance became the most important
locality in Europe. People of every rank,
from the king to the beggar, came.
Bakers, beadles, grooms, scribes,
goldsmiths, merchantmen of every sort,
as well as dukes, prelates, learned
university masters and doctors.
17
33 cardinals
5 patriarchs
47 archbishops
145 bishops
93 titular bishops
217 doctors of theology
361 doctors of both law and theology
171 doctors of medicine
a great number from 37 universities
83 kings and princes represented by envoys
38 dukes
173 counts
71 barons
1500+ knights
142 writers of bulls
1700 buglers, fiddlers, and players of other musical instruments
18
The English and Scotch delegation, which
numbered less than 12 people, for example,
was accompanied by 700 or 800 mounted
men, splendidly attired, and headed by fifers
and other musicians, as they made their entry
into the city.
19
The streets and surroundings presented the
spectacle of a merry fair.
There were tournaments, dances, acrobatic
shows, processions, and musical displays.
20
But the purpose of the city was to host the
religious council, and a type of order was
maintained.
By order of the city council, people were
forbidden to be out after curfew without a light.
Chains were stretched across some of the
streets, and all shouting at night was forbidden.
A strict tariff was imposed to stop price hikes on
goods.
The price of a loaf of bread was fixed at a penny.
Room rentals were fixed at a certain price, as
were, also, the prices for grains, meat, eggs,
birds, and other articles of food.
21
In an effort to control the votes of the 80
bishops and doctors committed to John
XXIII, rules were made at the council
requiring everyone to vote by nation and
not as individuals.
Nations met in rooms assigned to them.
22
Bishops debate with the pope at the council
23
When it was apparent that the council would
remove all three popes (Benedict XIII,
Gregory XII, John XXIII), John XXIII made a
formal announcement that he resigned.
The city went wild with joy. Church bells
rang, people cried, and John himself, fearful
of what might happen to him, fled the city!
24
This was all a precursor to our subject of the
day—John Huss and Jerome of Prague.
Now the division caused by heresy could be
addressed, and Huss was their number one
heretic.
25
Credits:
Slide 7: Francisco Antunes at flickr
Slide 8: makilica at flickr
Slides 9, 10: Yortw at flickr
26
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