Summarizing and Paraphrasing

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ARGUMENT
 Please note that the information in the following slides is
taken from Graff and Birkenstein’s They Say/I Say.
 Now that you have your highlighted research, thesis and
skeletal outline, let’s review effective ways of supporting
the argument with evidence that has been paraphrased,
summarized or quoted from an outside source. Once you
have reviewed this material you should be able to write
an opening and the body paragraphs for the paper. The
next lessons will review citing sources internally and the
concerns that you listed for me recently.
Part 1: Summarizing/
Paraphrasing and Quoting
ANY INFORMATION
TAKEN FROM A
SOURCE MUST BE
CITED INTERNALLY
AND ON THE WORKS
CITED PAGE.
Putting Yourself in New Shoes
 In order to argue persuasively, you need to be in dialogue
with others. Summarizing, then, is a central “move” in
argument. A good summary must at once be true to what
the original author says while also emphasizing those
aspects of what the author says that interest you.
 To write a good summary or paraphrase, you must be
able to suspend your own beliefs for a time and put
yourself in the shoes of someone else. Writing a good
summary means not just representing an author’s view
accurately, but doing so in a way that fits your own
essay’s larger agenda.
Use Signal Verbs
Sample templates:
 She advocates a radical revision of the juvenile
justice system.
 They celebrate the fact that __________.
 ___________________, he admits.
Verbs for Introducing Summaries
and Quotations
VERBS FOR MAKING CLAIM
ARGUE
ASSERT
BELIEVE
CLAIM
EMPHASIZE
INSIST
OBSERVE
REMIND US
REPORT
SUGGEST
Verbs for Expressing
Agreement
ACKNOWLEDGE
ADMIRE
AGREE
ENDORSE
EXTOL
PRAISE
Verbs for Questioning or
Disagreeing
COMPLAIN
COMPLICATE
CONTEND
CONTRADICT
DENY
DEPLORE THE TENDENCY TO
QUALIFY
QUESTION
REFUTE
REJECT
RENOUNCE
REPUDIATE
Verbs for Making
Recommendations
ADVOCATE
CALL FOR
DEMAND
ENCOURAGE
EXHORT
IMPLORE
PLEAD
RECOMMEND
URGE
WARN
Hang in there. It won’t be long now. . .
. . .but don’t forget, first we’ve got finals
 There were four teenagers who played hooky on the
date of the final exam. Upon coming to class in the
afternoon, they reported that their lateness was
because their car got a flat tire.
 That’s fine the teacher said, much to the students’
relief. I’ll give you the final now. He then placed
each teenager in his own room and gave him the test,
which consisted of only one question: “Which tire?”
Exercise #1: Summarize or Paraphrase
 1. Locate 2 passages from the research articles that
you plan to use as evidence in a) the argument and b)
the counterargument. These should be passages that
you plan to paraphrase or summarize rather than
quote.
 2. Review the verbs you noted and write a sentence
for each paraphrase.
 3. Remember to place an internal citation before the
conclusion of the sentence.
The Art of Quoting
 The main problem with quoting arises when writers
assume that quotations speak for themselves.
Because the meaning of a quotation is obvious to
them, many writers assume that this meaning will
also be obvious to their readers, when often it is not.
Remember that quotations are orphans: words that
have been taken away from their original contexts
and that need to be integrated into their new
surroundings.
Key Ways to Quote Effectively
 1) Choose the quote wisely, with an eye
to how well they support a particular
part of your text
 2) Surround every major quotation with
a frame explaining whose words they
are, what the quotation means, and how
the quotation relates to your own text.
Frame Every Quotation
 Since quotations do not speak for themselves, you
need to build a frame around them in which you do
that speaking for them.
 Avoid “hit and run quotations.” Review the passage
below:
Hit and Run Quotations
 Susan Bordo writes about women and dieting: “Fiji is
just one example. Until television was introduced in
1995, the islands had no reported cases of eating
disorders. In 1998, three years after programs from
the United States and Britain began broadcasting
there, 62 percent of the girls surveyed reported
dieting.” I think Bordo is right. Another point Bordo
makes is that. . .
Make a Quotation Sandwich
 The statement introducing it is the top slice of bread
and the explanation following it serves as the bottom
slice. The introductory or lead-in claims should
explain who is speaking and set up what the
quotations says; the follow-up statements should
explain why you consider the quotation to be
important and what you take it to say.
Templates for Introducing Quotations
 X states, “not all steroids should be banned from sports.”
 As the prominent philosopher X puts it, “____.”
 According to x, “_________.”
 X himself writes, “_________.”
 In her book, _____, X maintains that “________.”
 Writing in the journal Commentary, X complains that
____________.”
 In X’s view, “_________”
 X disagrees when he writes, “__________.”
 X complicates matters further when she writes, “_____.”
Templates for Explaining Quotations
 Basically, X is warning that the proposed solution





will only make the problem worse.
In other words, X believes ________.
In making this comment, X urges us to _____.
X is corroborating the age-old adage that _____.
X’s point is that _____.
The essence of X’s argument is that ______.
Revised Hit and Run
 Remember the accident?
 Susan Bordo writes about women and dieting: “Fiji is
just one example. Until television was introduced in
1995, the islands had no reported cases of eating
disorders. In 1998, three years after programs from
the United States and Britain began broadcasting
there, 62 percent of the girls surveyed reported
dieting.” I think Bordo is right. Another point Bordo
makes is that. . .
CPR on the Hit and Run Sentence
 The feminist philosopher Susan Bordo deplores Western media’s
obsession with female thinness and dieting. Her basic complaint is
that increasing numbers of women across the globe are being led to
see themselves as fat and in need of a diet. Citing the island of Fiji
as a case in point, Bordo notes that “until television was introduced
in 1995, the islands had no reported cases of eating disorders. In
1998, three years after programs from the United States and Britain
began broadcasting there, 62 percent of the girls surveyed reporting
dieting (149-50). Bordo’s point is that the Western cult of dieting is
spreading even to remote places across the globe. Ultimately, Bordo
complains, the culture of dieting will find everyone, regardless of
where he lives.
 Borado’s observations ring true to me because most women I know,
regardless of where they are from, are seriously unhappy with their
weight.
Overanalyzing a Quotation????
 It is better to risk being overly explicit about what
you take a quotation to mean than to leave the
quotation dangling and your readers in doubt.
How NOT to Introduce Quotations
 You should not introduce quotations by saying
something like “Orwell asserts and idea that” or “A
quote by Shakespeare says.” Introductory phrases
like these are both redundant and misleading. In the
first example, you could write either “Orwell asserts
that” or “Orwell’s assertion is that,” rather than
redundantly combing the two. The second example
misleads readers, since it is the writer who is doing
the quotation, not Shakespeare.
Responding: Disagreeing, with Reasons
 (For use in your refutation)
 I think X is mistaken because she overlooks




__________.
X’s claim that ___________ rests upon the
questionable assumption that ___________.
I disagree with X’s view that ___________ because, as
recent research has shown, ________.
X contradicts herself/can’t hae it both ways. On the one
hand, she argues _____. On the other hand, she also
argues _____.
By focusing on _____, X overlooks the deeper problem
of _____.
Agreeing
 X is surely right about _____ because, as she may not be




aware, recent studies have shown that _____.
X’s theory of _____ is extremely useful because it sheds
insight on the difficult problem of _____.
Those unfamiliar with this school of thought may be
interested to know that it basically boils down to _____.
I agree that _____, a point that needs emphasizing since
so many people believe _____.
If group X is right that _____, as I think they are, then
we need to reassess the popular assumption that _____.
Exercise #2: Quoting
 Find 2 quotes from your research.
 Create a frame for each quote that introduces,
integrates and then analyzes the material.
Just a few more slides, now. . .
Part 2: Writing an Opening
 Provide an attention grabbing device by opening
with a startling statistic, interesting anecdote or
relevant background information.
 Supply background information as needed, but do so
concisely.
 Segue into your thesis statement.
Sample Opening

A striking 80% of Holmdel High School seniors
confess to never having read the assigned summer
reading book (Simon 45). The assignment,
instituted by the Board of Education in 1984,
requires students at each grade level to read at
least one work of fiction during the summer
months (24).
.
And just for Amanda. . .
For Joe, to make up for any drummer slurs. . .
And for Lena. . .
And just for Jason. . .
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