Part 1 - gcsar

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Chapter 8
Operating Regulations
Chapter 8
Operating Regulations
Today’s agenda
• Control operators
• Guest operating and privileges
• Identification on the air
• Tactical Call Signs
• Rules about interference
• Third-party communications
Chapter 8
Operating Regulations
Today’s agenda (Continued)
• Remote and automatic control
• Prohibited communications
• Broadcasting
Chapter 8
Control Operators
All transmissions from an amateur radio station must be
made under the control of a properly licensed operator who
is responsible for making sure that all FCC rules are
followed.
That operator is the station’s control operator.
There can only be one control operator for a station at a
time.
The control operator is responsible for station operation, no
matter who is actually speaking in the microphone, sending
Morse code or using a keyboard to send digital signals.
Chapter 8
Control Operators
A control operator is the amateur designated to be
responsible for making sure that all transmissions from the
station comply with FCC rules.
The control operator does not have to be the station
licensee and doesn’t have to be physically present at the
transmitter in some cases.
The control operator is responsible for all amateur
transmissions from the from the station.
The station licensee is responsible for designating the
control operator.
Chapter 8
Control Operators
A control operator must be:
• Named in the FCC amateur license database or
• Be an alien (a citizen of another country - not E.T.)
with reciprocal operating authorization.
Any licensed amateur can be a control operator
[within the limits of the privileges of their current license]
Chapter 8
Control Operators
The control point is where the control function is performed.
Usually, the control point is at the transmitter and the
control operator manipulates the controls of the transmitter.
The control point can be remotely located and connected by
phone lines, the Internet or a radio link.
Chapter 8
Control Operators
Privileges & Guest Operating
As the control operator, you may operate the station in any
way permitted by the privileges of your license.
It doesn’t matter what the station owner’s privileges are,
only the privileges of the control operator.
Being a guest operator is very common – you may allow
another amateur to use your station or you may be the
guest. In either case you need to understand what sets the
control operator’s privileges.
Chapter 8
Control Operators
Privileges & Guest Operating
Joe (KA2JUQ) has a Technician class license and visit’s
Mary (WN4FUI) who has an Amateur extra license.
If Mary is the control operator, Joe can operate Mary’s
station using Mary’s call sign on any amateur frequency
using all of Mary’s license privileges.
Mary must be present to perform the control operator
responsibilities while Joe is operating her station.
Chapter 8
Control Operators
Privileges & Guest Operating
If Mary has to go to the store, she can tell Joe that he can be
the control operator of her station.
As the control operator of Mary’s station
Joe may operate her station
only within the limits of
his Technician class license privileges.
If Mary does not
tell Joe that he can be the control operator,
Joe may not legally operate Mary’s station.
Chapter 8
Control Operators
Privileges & Guest Operating
Mary (WN4FUI) who has an Amateur Extra class license
visit’s Joe (KA2JUQ) who has a Technician class license.
If Joe “lends” Mary his station (Mary is not the control
operator), Mary can operate Joe’s station using all of her
Amateur Extra class license privileges.
In this case there are some unique identification rules that
apply.
Chapter 8
Control Operators
Privileges & Guest Operating
Because Mary (WN4FUI) has the higher class license and is
“borrowing” a lower class licensee’s station (KA2JUQ), she
must identify herself in the following manner when using
her unique license privileges (e.g., those privileges not
available to Joe because he has a Technician class license):
Phone: This is KA2JUQ stroke WN4FUI
CW/Digital: DE KA2JUQ/WN4FUI
When operating Joe’s station using VHF or UHF
Mary only has to identify using Joe’s call sign.
Chapter 8
Control Operators
Privileges & Guest Operating
Regardless of license class, BOTH the guest operator and
station owner are responsible for proper operation of the
station.
The control operator is responsible for the station’s
transmissions and the station owner is responsible for
limiting access to the station to responsible licensees.
The FCC will presume the station licensee to be the control
operator unless there is a written record of who is the
control operator.
Chapter 8
Control Operators
Unlicensed “Operators”
There is nothing wrong with an unlicensed person
operating an amateur radio station as long as a control
operator is present when any transmissions are made.
Unlicensed persons may operate an amateur radio station
only within the limits of the license privileges granted to the
control operator.
The control operator must always be present and
ensuring that all FCC rules are obeyed.
Chapter 8
Identification
Normal Identification
Every time you say or send your call sign over the
air, you are identifying your station.
Unidentified transmissions are not allowed,
no matter how brief.
Unidentified means that no call sign
was associated with a transmission.
If you need to make a test transmission
to check your antenna, radio, etc.,
just speaking your call sign is all that is needed.
Chapter 8
Identification
Normal Identification
Keying your transmitter to check if your signal is reaching
the repeater is called “kerchunking” because of the sound
the repeater makes. If you don’t give your call sign you’ve
sent an unidentified transmission. Just say your call sign
and you’ll be legal.
You must give your call sign at least once every 10 minutes
during a contact (including test transmissions) and when
the contact is ended.
• Not required at the beginning
• Not required to say the other station’s call sign but it’s
considered to be “good practice”
Chapter 8
Identification
Normal Identification
A “LID” is a derogatory term to describe an amateur radio
operator who is inept at the practice of the practice/art in
the amateur radio service.
You might be considered to be a “LID” if you say:
“This is KA2JUQ for ID” {giving your call is all that’s
necessary} or
“This is KA2JUQ on the 105 machine” {You don’t need to
tell me you’re on the 105 machine because if I can hear
you I already know you’re on the 105 machine. If I can’t
hear you, what difference does it make?}
Chapter 8
Identification
Normal Identification
You can identify your station by Morse code, by voice, or in
an image. Video and digital call signs must be sent via a
standard protocol or format.
You may talk to anyone via amateur radio using a foreign
language. However you must identify your station in
English.
The FCC recommends the use of phonetics when you
identify by voice which avoid confusing letters that sound
alike. You may also identify by CW (Morse code) even if
using voice.
Chapter 8
Identification
Normal Identification
International Phonetics
A Alpha
H Hotel
O Oscar
V Victor
B Bravo
I
P Papa
W Whiskey
C Charlie
J Juliet
Q Quebec
X X-Ray
D Delta
K Kilo
R Romeo
Y Yankee
E Echo
L Lima
S Sierra
Z Zulu
F Foxtrot
M Mike
T Tango
G Golf
N November
U Uniform
India
Chapter 8
Identification
Tactical Call Signs
Tactical call signs are used to help identify where a station
is and what it is doing.
Water Stop Three (KA2JUQ) this is Net Control (WN4FUI)
Shelter Three (KA2JUQ) this is EOC (WN4FUI)
Tactical calls can be used any time but are usually used
druing emergency and public service operations.
Chapter 8
Identification
Tactical Call Signs
Tactical call signs don’t actually replace your call sign
because the regular identification rules apply
• Every 10 minutes and
• At the end of the contact
Water Stop Three this is Net Control. The ambulance
will arrive in five minutes. KB3ATI
This is Water Stop Three. QSL Net Control. AA3RR
Chapter 8
Identification
Tactical Call Signs
In the previous example “Water Stop Three” and “Net
Control” are Tactical Call Signs.
KB3ATI and AA3RR are the actual call signs of the
operators who are currently operating the
“Water Stop Three” and “Net Control” stations.
Chapter 8
Identification
Self-Assigned Indicators
FCC Part 97.119(c) states:
One or more indicators may be included with the call sign.
Each indicator must be separated from the call sign by the
slant bar (/) or by any suitable word that denotes the slant
bar. If an indicator is self-assigned, it must be included
before, after, or both before and after, the call sign.
If AA3RR from Maryland is operating in Ohio,
he would indicate that by saying:
“AA3RR portable (or mobile) in Ohio.
Chapter 8
Identification
Self-Assigned Indicators
If using Morse or Digital modes it would look like this:
If AA3RR from Maryland is operating in Ohio,
he would indicate that by saying:
“AA3RR/OH = Portable in Ohio
AA3RR/Mob/OH = Mobile in Ohio
Chapter 8
Identification
Self-Assigned Indicators
FCC Part 97.119(c) also states:
No self-assigned indicator may conflict with any other
indicator specified by the FCC Rules or with any
prefix assigned to another country.
AA3RR/M The “M” is incorrectly used on CW or Digital
to indicate AA3RR is operating as a mobile station. In
fact, using “M” would indicate AA3RR was portable in
England because “M” is an allocated prefix for England.
Chapter 8
Identification
Self-Assigned Indicators
FCC Part 97.119(c) also states:
No self-assigned indicator may conflict with any other
indicator specified by the FCC Rules or with any
prefix assigned to another country.
W3VPR/R The “R” is incorrectly used on CW or Digital to
indicate W3VPR is a repeater station. In fact, using “R”
would indicate W3VPR was portable in Russia because
RAA - RZZ is allocated to the Russian Federation.
So why don’t we follow the rules?
Chapter 8
Identification
Self-Assigned Indicators
FCC Part 97.119(f) states that when the control operator who
is using his/her new privileges as the result of a successful
upgrade and that upgrade does not yet appear in the FCC
data base, an indicator must be included after the call sign as
follows:
• Upgrade from Novice to Technician Class: KT
• Upgrade from Novice, Technician to General Class: AG
• Upgrade from Novice, Technician, General, or Advanced
Class operator to Amateur Extra Class: AE
Chapter 8
Identification
Self-Assigned Indicators
When using voice you would say:
WN4FUI temporary (or interim) KT or AG or AE
It’s recommended that you use phonetics to identify the
indicator (Kilo Tango, Alpha Golf or Alpha Echo)
When using Morse or Digital you would send:
WN4FUI/KT
WN4FUI/AG
WN4FUI/AE
Chapter 8
Identification
Miscellaneous Identification Rules
There are two exceptions to the identification rules:
• Remote Control Signals
• Signals retransmitted through “space stations”
Chapter 8
Identification
Miscellaneous Identification Rules
Remote Control Signals
• Controlling a model craft (e.g., airplane, boat, etc)
• You don’t send your call sign
• Signals very weak and don’t travel far
• Call sign not much use
• Put your call sign, name and address on the transmitter.
Chapter 8
Identification
Miscellaneous Identification Rules
Signals retransmitted through “space stations”
• Space stations are amateur stations located more than
50 km above the Earth’s surface.
• Amateur Satellites
• International Space Station
• Space Shuttle
Chapter 8
Identification
Miscellaneous Identification Rules
Space stations do not have to identify themselves
The International Space Station has two Amateur radio
stations on board:
• NA1SS - USA
• RU0SS – Russian Federation
Chapter 8
Identification
Test Transmissions
The rules governing identification apply to test transmissions
as well.
• Once every 10 minutes
• At the end of the testing
• Kept brief to avoid interfering with other stations
• Using voice - “KA2JUQ testing”
• Using Morse or CW – “KA2JUQ VVV VVV”
Chapter 8
Identification
Automatic Identification
Stations under automatic control must also identify
themselves.
• Repeaters most common example
• Repeaters identify themselves in several ways
• Voice
• Morse (20 WPM or slower)
• Image using standard video signal format
Chapter 8
Identification
Special Event Stations
When operating with a “Special Event Call Sign” (1 x 1 format)
• Both the special event call sign and the usual call sign
of the amateur or club who requested the special event
call sign must be given on-the-air.
• Special Event Call Sign – Every 10 minutes and at
the end of a communication.
• Call of club or amateur who applied for the special
event call sign – Once an hour.
Chapter 8
Interference
Chapter 8
Interference
Interference is caused by “noise” and by “signals”.
Noise interference is caused by natural sources such as
thunderstorms (QRN = “natural”) or unintentional signals
radiated by appliances, industrial equipment, or computing
equipment.
Interference from nearby amateur signals (QRM = “man
made”)
Chapter 8
Interference
Most interference is manageable.
Hams have learned various way of dealing with QRM
including the following:
• Common sense and courtesy
• Use of good filters to reject interference
• Remember that no one owns a frequency
• Be aware of other activities such as “special events”,
“Dxpeditions”, and “contests” (there are lots of these).
Chapter 8
Interference
Interference is caused by “noise” and by “signals”.
Noise interference is caused by natural sources such as
thunderstorms (QRN = “natural”) or unintentional
signals radiated by appliances, industrial equipment, or
computing equipment.
Interference from nearby amateur signals (QRM = “man
made”) is a price we pay for getting more people into the
hobby. More people operating on the bands will result in
more interference from amateur signals.
More hams or less signals?
Chapter 8
Interference
Harmful Interference
Harmful interference is defined as a transmission that
seriously degrades, obstructs or repeatedly interrupts the
communications of a regulated service.
Every ham should make sure to transmit and receive in a
way that minimizes the possibility of causing harmful
interference.
If you receive reports of interference from you such as
transmitting off-frequency or generating spurious signals
(“splatter”, harmonics, etc.) check your equipment.
Chapter 8
Interference
Harmful Interference
When testing equipment, use a “Dummy Load” and keep
your transmissions short.
Be flexible!
If you cause interference, apologize, identify and take the
necessary steps to reduce interference --- change freq,
reduce power, and/or change the direction of your antenna
if possible.
Chapter 8
Interference
Willful Interference
If you intentionally create harmful interference, that is called
willful interference and willful interference is never allowed.
No matter how you do it (e.g., intentionally over-modulating,
transmitting spurious signals, transmitting music, belching,
etc.) intentionally interfering or obstructing radio
communications is against the law.
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
This concept is often misunderstood even among the “old
timers” in our hobby.
Amateur radio is often used to send messages (Written and
oral) on behalf of unlicensed persons or organizations.
This is one of the oldest activities in ham radio.
We relay messages from station to station until they are
delivered by a ham near the addressee.
This is third-party communications.
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Because third-party communications bypass the normal
telephone and postal services, many foreign governments
want to control it for several reasons.
The FCC doesn’t want the Amateur Radio Service to
become a non-commercial messaging system.
Naturally, we have some rules that address third-party
communications. We also need to be clear on what is and
is not third-party communications.
It’s not rocket science.
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Definitions & Rules
The person or organization on whose behalf a message
is sent is the “third party”
A licensed amateur capable of being a control operator at
either station is not considered a “third party”.
Just because you can be the control operator on
2-meters does not exclude you from being a “third
party”.
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Definitions & Rules
The “third party” does not have to be present at either
station.
A message can be taken to a ham station or
A ham can transmit speech from a third party’s
telephone call over the ham radio - “Phone Patch”.
Over.
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Definitions & Rules
The communications transmitted on behalf of the “thirdparty” are not limited to written text.
• Spoken words
• Data
• Images
An organization such as a church or a school can be a
“third-party”.
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Definitions & Rules
The “third party” may participate in transmitting or receiving
the message at either station.
An unlicensed person sends third-party communications
when they speak into the microphone, send Morse code or
type on a keyboard (Digital).
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Definitions & Rules
The “third party” may participate in transmitting or receiving
the message at either station.
An licensed amateur sends third-party communications when
they speak into the microphone, send Morse code or type on
a keyboard (Digital) on a frequency beyond their current
license privileges. For example:
• A Novice operating on 2m
• A Tech operating on 20m
• A General operating on the Extra portion of 80m Phone
If you can’t be the control operator on the frequency in use
you are a “third party”.
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Definitions & Rules
Third-party communications may be exchanged between any
stations operating under FCC rules with the constraint that
the communications must be noncommercial and of a
personal nature.
When radio signals cross borders, the rules change.
International third-party communications are restricted to
those 50 countries/entities that specifically allow third-party
communications with U.S. hams.
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Definitions & Rules
Let’s recap…
Example #1
A message from one ham to another is not third-party
communications, whether transmitted directly or relayed by
other stations.
Mary (WN4FUI) contacts Paul (KA2JUQ) and asks him to
deliver a birthday greeting to Ryan (KB3DVA).
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Definitions & Rules
Example #2
Mary (WN4FUI and an Amateur Extra) lets Paul (KA2JUQ
and a Technician) make a contact with Ryan (KB3DVA) on
20m.
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Definitions & Rules
Example #3
Freddy (G4FUI) contacts Paul (KA2JUQ) on 15m and asks
him to deliver a birthday greeting to Ryan (KB3DVA) in
Florida.
Third-party communications?
Allowed?
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Definitions & Rules
Example #4
Mary (WN4FUI) lets Paul (unlicensed) make a contact with
Ryan (KB3DVA).
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Definitions & Rules
Example #4
Mary (WN4FUI) lets Paul (unlicensed) make a contact with
Ryan (KB3DVA).
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Antigua and Barbuda
Chile
El Salvador
Argentina
Colombia
Gambia, The
Australia
Comoros (The Federal
Islamic Republic of)
Ghana
Belize
Costa Rica
Grenada
Bolivia
Cuba
Guatemala
Bosnia-Herzegovina
Dominica
Guyana
Brazil
Dominican Republic
Haiti
Canada
Ecuador
Honduras
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
Israel
Nicaragua
St. Lucia
Jamaica
Panama
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Jordan
Paraguay
Sierra Leone
Liberia
Peru
South Africa
Marshall Islands
Philippines
Swaziland
Mexico
Pitcairn Island
Trinidad and Tobago
Micronesia,
St. Christopher
Federated States of and Nevis
Turkey
Chapter 8
Third-Party Communications
United Kingdom (special event stations with call sign prefix GB followed
by a number other than 3)
Uruguay
Venezuela
United Nations (4U1ITU) in Geneva, Switzerland
United Nations (4U1VIC) in Vienna, Austria.
Bottom Line:
If you’re in contact with a ham in a country/entity that is not
on the list above, you MAY NOT engage in any third-party
communications with that ham.
Chapter 8
Remote & Automatic Control
Many stations such as repeaters and beacons operate
without human control operators.
It is becoming common to operate a station via a link
over the Internet or phone lines
No matter how it is done or where the control point is
located, the fact remains that the station must be
operated in compliance with the FCC rules at all times.
Chapter 8
Remote & Automatic Control
Definitions
Local Control – A control operator is physically present at
the control point. This is the situation for almost all
amateur stations. Any type of station can be locally
controlled.
• Fixed – Your station at home
• Mobile – Your station in your vehicle
• Portable – Walking around with your HT
Chapter 8
Remote & Automatic Control
Definitions
Remote Operation – The control point is located away from
the transmitter but a control operator is present at the
control point. The control point and the transmitter are
connected by a control link.
• Internet
• Phone line
• Radio
Any station can be remotely controlled.
Chapter 8
Remote & Automatic Control
Definitions
Automatic Operation – The station operates completely
under the control of devices and procedures that ensure
compliance with FCC rules. A control operator is always
required but does not have to be at the control point when
the station is transmitting.
Repeaters, beacons, and space stations [satellites] are
examples of stations that are automatically controlled.
Chapter 8
Remote & Automatic Control
Responsibilities
No matter what type of control is used, the station must
operate in compliance with FCC rules at all times. No ifs,
ands or buts. The control operator, no matter where he/she
is located relative to the transmitter, is responsible for the
station’s operation.
Chapter 8
Remote & Automatic Control
Responsibilities
Repeater owners must install the necessary equipment and
procedures for automatic control to ensure the repeater
operates in compliance with FCC rules.
If the automatic controls result in rules violations, the FCC
can require a repeater to be placed on remote control which
requires a control operator to be present when the repeater
is operating.
However, repeater users are responsible
for proper operation via the repeater.
Chapter 8
Remote & Automatic Control
Responsibilities
There are special rules for automatic control when using
digital protocols to operate automatically.
• Stations may use a data mode (including RTTY) under
automatic control in specific portions of the HF bands
and above 50 MHz.
• Data stations are the only type of automaticallycontrolled stations allowed to forward third-party
communications.
It okay to pass third-party messages over a repeater.
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Because radio amateurs are given wide latitude to
communicate within technical and procedural rules, the
FCC does not specifically prohibit very many types of
transmissions. Here are four types that are prohibited:
• Unidentified transmissions
• False or deceptive signals
• False distress or emergency signals
• Obscene or indecent speech
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Business Communications
You may not used your amateur radio in any way to conduct
your business [your job] or your employer’s business.
• This is AMATEUR RADIO and
• There are plenty of communications services available
for commercial activities.
However, your own personal activities don’t count as
“business” communications.
See the next slide for examples
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Business Communications
You may use your amateur radio for the following:
• Talk to your spouse about shopping or what to pick up
from “the store”.
• You can order things over-the-air as long as you don’t
do it regularly and it can’t be related to your job.
• You can advertise equipment for sale as long it
pertains to amateur radio and is not your regular job.
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Business Communications
• Use a repeater’s autopatch to make or change a
doctor’s appointment
• Advertise a radio for sale on a “swap and shop” net.
• Describe your business as part of a casual
conversation.
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Here’s what you CANNOT do:
• Use a repeater’s autopatch to call a business client or
to change a business appointment.
• Selling household or sporting goods on a “swap and
shop” net.
• Regularly selling radio equipment at a profit over the
air.
• Advertising your professional services over the air.
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
• You cannot be paid for operating an amateur radio
station.
Exception to the rules:
• Teachers may use ham radio as part of their classroom
instruction.
• Their role as a control operator of a ham station must
be incidental to their job and cannot be a majority of
their duties.
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Encrypted Transmissions
One of the requirements for all of our operating privileges is
that amateur radio must remain a public form of
communications.
Therefore, we cannot transmit secret codes or obscure the
content of our transmissions in order to prevent others form
receiving the information.
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Encrypted Transmissions
Translating information into data for transmission is called
“encoding” and recovering the encoded information is
called “decoding”.
• Most forms of encoding are okay because they use a
published [public] digital protocol.
• Any ham can look up the protocol and develop the
appropriate capabilities to receive and decode data sent
with that protocol.
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Encrypted Transmissions
The use of codes or ciphers to hide the meaning of the
transmitted message is called “encryption”. Recovery of
the encrypted information is called “decryption”.
Amateurs may use encryption techniques for radio control
and control to space stations, when interception or
unauthorized transmissions could have serious
consequences.
No other use of encryption techniques are authorized by
radio amateurs.
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Broadcasting and Retransmission
Most non-hams incorrectly refer to the transmissions of
radio amateur’s as “broadcasting”.
Broadcasting consists of one-way transmissions intended
for reception by the general public.
The radio stations you listen to in your vehicle or on your
home stereo are called “broadcast stations” because they
their one-way transmissions are intended for the general
public.
Hams are not permitted to make this type of transmission.
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Broadcasting and Retransmission
The prohibition on broadcasting includes:
• Hams may not repeat or relay transmissions from
other communications services.
• Hams may not assist or participate in news gathering
by broadcasting organizations (e.g., commercial or
public radio including satellite radio, commercial, public,
or cable television, etc.)
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Broadcasting and Retransmission
On-the-air code practice and bulletins for radio amateurs
are permitted.
However, with one exception, transmitting music via
amateur radio is prohibited. This INCLUDES background
music from your vehicle radio, home stereo, a CD player,
etc. Turn off the music before you transmit!
The exception? When music is rebroadcast as part of an
AUTHORIZED rebroadcast of space station or space shuttle
transmissions.
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Broadcasting and Retransmission
Retransmitting the signals of another station is generally
prohibited. Some exceptions include:
• You are relaying messages or digital data from another
station.
• Repeaters, auxiliary stations and space stations are
allowed to automatically retransmit signals on different
frequencies or channels.
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Special Circumstances
Ham communications must be intended for reception by
hams.
Hams may retransmit weather and propagation
information from government stations but not on a
regular basis.
You may operate on a boat or from a private plane only with
the approval of the Captain (The FAA prohibits all
transmissions from inside the aircraft while in flight).
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Special Circumstances
If you receive permission to operate from a boat or private
airplane you cannot use any on-board radio systems (e.g.,
the radio equipment normally used by the crew of the boat
or plane). You must bring your own equipment.
Amateur communications may not interfere with any of the
on-board communications systems including navigation
equipment.
Chapter 8
Prohibited Transmissions
Special Circumstances
Normally, hams can’t communicate with non-amateur
services. The FCC may allow hams to communicate with
non-ham services at certain times or during declared
emergencies.
RACES operators may also communicate with government
stations during emergencies.
Once a year, the FCC permits ham-to-military
communications on Armed Forces Day during May.
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