Rhetorical Strategies Review

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RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES
REVIEW
RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES
I. DESCRIPTION
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I. DESCRIPTION
o Relies upon SENSE DETAILS
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Sights
Sounds
Smells
Tastes
Touches (tactile impressions)
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I. DESCRIPTION
o And FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
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Describing the unknown by way of the known
Similes
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Using “like” or “as”
Metaphors
 Using or implying “is”
o She had black wires for hair.
o Her eyes were as black as a shark’s.
o Her nose was a ski slope.
o She had a mouth like a trash compactor.
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I. DESCRIPTION
o And PROPER DICTION
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Keen, discriminating word choice
The “right” words (descriptive)
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adjectives, adverbs
 to modify ordinary, plain words
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nouns, verbs
 the exact word, technical term, vocabulary
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Sometimes a heart just “beats”
But often, more descriptive words can be
utilized to help you make your point 
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Beats quickly, very fast, irregularly
Pounds, throbs, drums, flutters, dances
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I. DESCRIPTION
o To support a DOMINANT IMPRESSION
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The atmosphere, setting
A unifying impression or controlling aspect
Links all of your sense details
The first adjective that comes to mind when
you think about a particular place, object,
person, or event
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I. DESCRIPTION
o Details are arranged SPATIALLY
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By space
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(as opposed to chronology, reason, logic, or
emphasis)
Left to right or right to left
Top to bottom or bottom to top
To “pan,” as with a camera
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I. DESCRIPTION
On the Job:
o Reports of all kinds
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Medical reports
Police reports
Accident reports
Business reports
o Journalist’s or Reporter’s article
o Product description
o Construction site details
o Chemistry or Biology labs
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I. DESCRIPTION
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o Topic = abortion
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“for”
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Describe the living conditions of the unwanted
child of a drug-addicted mother
“against”
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Describe the surgical procedure
“Suction Aspiration” or “Dilation and Curettage”
RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES
II. NARRATION
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II. NARRATION
o Relies upon STORY ELEMENTS
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Plot
Characterization
Theme
Setting
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II. NARRATION
o And DESCRIPTIVE ELEMENTS
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Sense Details
Figurative Language
Diction
Dominant Impression (related to theme)
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II. NARRATION
o To relate a STORY
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Narrative
Account, chronicle
Tale, myth, legend
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II. NARRATION
o With a MORAL
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Message
Point
Meaning
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Theme
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II. NARRATION
o Details are arranged CHRONOLOGICALLY
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By TIME
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(as opposed to space, reason, logic, or
emphasis)
Beginning, Middle, End
Linear progression
No flashbacks, no circling, no juxtaposition
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II. NARRATION
On the Job:
o Recording witness testimony
o Lab reports
o Experiment notes
o Journalistic accounts
o Workman’s Compensation Accident reports
o Meeting minutes
o Troubleshooting explanation
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II. NARRATION
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o Narration as evidence
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Eye-witness or expert testimony
Lab reports
Journalistic accounts
Historic accounts
o Topic = Depression
 Case studies
 Your personal account with the disease
RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES
III. ILLUSTRATION
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III. ILLUSTRATION
o Employs various means of EVIDENCE
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EXAMPLES
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Clear, unambiguous, unequivocal
Relevant, topical, warranted, applicable
concrete and specific details
statistics, facts, figures
specific people, places, objects
anecdotes
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brief informative stories to help develop ideas;
like instances or occurrences
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III. ILLUSTRATION
o To support a SPECIFIC CLAIM
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Argument
Point
Issue
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Thesis
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III. ILLUSTRATION
o That is clearly stated in the
THESIS STATEMENT
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Clear, emphatic
Argumentative
Topic + Main Idea + Support
Located at the end of the Introduction
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III. ILLUSTRATION
o Evidence arranged EMPHATICALLY
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Save the “best” for last
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By reason, logic, or emphasis
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Most common, important, significant,
demonstrative
(as opposed to chronology, space)
Build “emphasis”
Move toward climax
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III. ILLUSTRATION
o Persuasive
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When done correctly
Not overtly persuasive
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III. ILLUSTRATION
On the Job:
o Case studies
o Demographic statistics
o Graphs, charts, tables, figures
o Product specifications
o Crime scene details
o Legal precedents, case law
o Recommendations from past customers or
employers
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III. ILLUSTRATION
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o Illustration as evidence
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EXAMPLES
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Clear, unambiguous, unequivocal
Relevant, topical, warranted, applicable
Illustrative narrative (anecdote)
concrete and specific details
statistics, facts, figures
specific people, places, objects
RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES
IV. DIVISION and
CLASSIFICATION
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IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
o DIVISION “divides” a topic into
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Roles
Subgroups
Subdivisions
“1 into many”
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IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
o CLASSIFICATION groups into
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Types
Groups
Classifications
Classes
Categories
“many into 1”
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IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
o Each uses EXAMPLES to support the
division or classification:
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Specific people
Specific instances or events
Uses clear, relevant, effective/telling, and
specific examples/instances (“for example”),
details, and anecdotes to illustrate the
characteristics of each type/part
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IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
o Sets up each example with an appropriate
TRANSITIONS:
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“For instance”
“For example”
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IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
o Paragraph topics are arranged
EMPHATICALLY
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Save the “best” for last
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By reason, logic, or emphasis
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Most common, important, significant,
demonstrative
(as opposed to chronology, space)
Build “emphasis”
o Move toward climax
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IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
On the Job:
o King Philip Came Over For Good Spaghetti
o Customer analysis (personality types)
o Sales floor organization
o Video store classification
o Understanding the functions of various
parts of complex systems
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Computers
Transmissions
o Resume, Job Search
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IV. DIVISION-CLASSIFICATION
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o To help understand the problem, issue,
situation
o D/C as evidence
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Types and sub-groups, roles
Each supported with specific examples
o Types of slavery, abortions, stem cells
o Crucial roles played by immigrant workers
RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES
V. COMPARISON
and CONTRAST
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V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
o Employs various means of EVIDENCE
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EXAMPLES
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Clear, unambiguous, unequivocal
Relevant, topical, warranted, applicable
concrete and specific details
statistics, facts, figures
specific people, places, objects
anecdotes (brief informative stories to help
develop ideas; like instances or occurrences)
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V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
o To compare OR contrast TWO subjects:
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Only 2 subjects
2 subjects from the same class or category
2 subjects clearly identified in the
Introduction
2 subjects compared or contrasted – not both
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V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
o Points of comparison or contrast are clearly
stated in the THESIS STATEMENT:
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Topic + Main Idea + Support
“support” = similarities or differences
Located at the end of the Introduction
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V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
o Writer effectively and strategically employs
one of two ORGANIZATIONAL METHODS:
o point-by-point-by-point method**
o subject-by-subject method*
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V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
o Writer uses appropriate TRANSITIONS to
guide the reader through the text:
o (comparison)
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also, like, as, furthermore, additionally
o (contrast)
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on the other hand, on the contrary,
conversely, however
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V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
o Writer EMPHATICALLY arranges evidence:
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Save the “best” for last
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By reason, logic, or emphasis
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Most common, important, significant,
demonstrative
(as opposed to chronology, space)
Build “emphasis”
Move toward climax
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V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
On the Job:
o Job searches
o Hiring, Firing, or Promoting
o Product choices
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Software, hardware
Tools, equipment
Storage, disposal, recycling
o Experiments
o Medications
o Treatment regimens
 Exercise, therapeutic, medicinal
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V. COMPARISON & CONTRAST
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o Topic = Stem Cell Research
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Compare cloned liver to “natural” one
Contrast embryonic to adult SCR
o Topic = Global Warming
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Compare current Global Warming fad to past
Global Cooling vogue
Contrast current conditions with 50 years ago
RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES
VI. DEFINITION
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VI. DEFINITION
o Employs various means of EVIDENCE
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EXAMPLES
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Clear, unambiguous, unequivocal
Relevant, topical, warranted, applicable
concrete and specific details
statistics, facts, figures
specific people, places, objects
anecdotes
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
brief informative stories to help develop ideas;
like instances or occurrences
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VI. DEFINITION
o To support a PERSONAL UNDERSTANDING
of a TERM:
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Not a text book definition
Not a dictionary or encyclopedia definition
o But a personal definition
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VI. DEFINITION
o That is clearly stated in the
THESIS STATEMENT:
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Thesis = Definition
Clear, emphatic
Located at the end of the Introduction
Topic + Main Idea + Support
Term + Class + Traits (characteristics,
attributes)
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VI. DEFINITION
o Evidence arranged EMPHATICALLY:
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Save the “best” for last
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By reason, logic, or emphasis
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
Most common, important, significant,
demonstrative
(as opposed to chronology, space)
Build “emphasis”
Move toward climax
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VI. DEFINITION
On the Job:
o Job definitions, postings, searches
o Technical terms
o Movements, genres, techniques
o Medical conditions, diseases, treatments
o Tools, parts, functions
o Ideas, ideologies, philosophies
o Laws, legal terms
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VI. DEFINITION
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o Topic = Racism (attitudes, language)
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See Langston Hughes’ “Black”
o Topic = Same-Sex Marriage
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Define “marriage”
How it’s defined = side of the issue
“for” = couple based on love, commitment
“against” = 1 man + 1 woman, for procreation
RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES
VII. ARGUMENT and
PERSUASION
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VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
PERSUASION:
o “Persuasion is the communication of a
particular message to a targeted audience for
a specific occasion to effect a change in the
reader(s)” (Memering 216, emphasis mine).
o its purpose is to persuade reader to think,
act, feel, certain way
o it appeals to reason, emotion, and ethics
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VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
ARGUMENT:
o it appeals to logic/reason primarily
o it uses emotion & ethics as support
o More objective than subjective persuasion
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More of a report than a dispute
Less about trying to change the reader
More about trying to inform the reader
o * this is the type of essay you will be writing
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VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
o Employs various means of EVIDENCE
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EXAMPLES
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Clear, unambiguous, unequivocal
Relevant, topical, warranted, applicable
concrete and specific details
statistics, facts, figures
specific people, places, objects
anecdotes


brief informative stories to help develop ideas;
like instances or occurrences
54
VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
o Evidence arranged EMPHATICALLY:
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Save the “best” for last
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
By reason, logic, or emphasis
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

Most common, important, significant,
demonstrative
(as opposed to chronology, space)
Build “emphasis”
Move toward climax
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VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
PURSUASIVE APPEALS:
o LOGOS
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Logic
Examples, stats, facts, reports, expert
testimony
o PATHOS
 Emotional
 Fear, guilt, sympathy, (emotional evidence)
o ETHOS
 Writer’s Credibility
 Tone, proper use of Logos & Pathos
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VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
On the Job:
o Job searches
o Hiring, Firing, or Promoting
o Product choices
o Policy recommendations
o Suggesting changes
o Buying, selling, advertising
o Conclusions, recommendations, suggestions
o Proposals, bids, applications, pitches
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VII. ARGUMENT-PERSUASION
In Argument:
o To help prove your claim
o To help persuade or convince
o Any Rhetorical Strategy can be employed to achieve
your goals, objectives
o Topic = Smoking in Public Places
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D: describe the stench, stains, coughs, lungs
N: relate personal instance at a restaurant
EX: stats, anecdotes of secondhand smoke
D/C: types of smokers, cancers, customers
C/C: before & after smoking ban
DFN: smoking, public places, rights, privileges
RHETORICAL
STRATEGIES
END of the REVIEW
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