File - 7 Red Social Studies and WIN!!!

DAY 2 & 3
• PARCC PRACTICE TESTS – go to - This is the
PARCC test site
Click on the PARCC Assessment across the top tabs
Click on Practice Tests on the left side
Click on the PARCC practice test under Spring 2014
Scroll down to Test Preparation – Choose Practice Tests
Choose View English Practice Test and Scroll down to 7th Grade –
Choose the Standard Version – enter your name and start test now!
6. Take the Math Test when finished!
7. Make sure you go through each function on your chart and place a
check mark in the box once you have figured out that skill
Floating Day
• Bell Work – Read through “Attacking a Chapter” and
write a SUMMARY of the information in your Bell Work
Doc in your Google Drive (Remember – a summary
includes pertinent info from EACH section of the text
you are reading re-stated in your own words)
• Take the Current Event Quiz – it is a worksheet for
class & also counted towards another award at the
end of the year
• If you are finished, skim chapter 7 in textbook and go
through section headings, graphics, highlighted vocab,
DAY 4 & 5
7.1 Washington
a New Nation
Key Terms and People
•Bell work-finish the quiz if you have
not completed it – turn it into bin
when done
•Today - Create a new Google doc in
your Grey SS 7 folder in Chrome Book
and label it “Chapter 7 KTP” - Do the
vocab for Chapter 7 on this Doc DUE FRI 1/23
The Big Ideas
• President Washington and members of Congress
established a new national government
In 1789 George Washington became the first
president of the United States
• Congress and the president organized the executive
and judicial branches of government
• Americans had high expectations of their new
The First President
• George Washington
– Honest man and a hero of
the Revolution
– Commander-in-Chief of
Continental Army, Battle of
Trenton, Valley Forge
– Many wanted him to be
president – he wanted quiet
life and retirement…and
better teeth
The First President
• January 1789 – Each of
the 11 states that had
passed the Constitution
sent Electors to meet
and vote for a President
– electoral college:
• the body of electors who
represent the people’s vote
in choosing the president
– Washington
• President
– John Adams
• Vice President
The First President
• First Lady Martha Custis
– Born into elite social status and
enjoyed traditional customs
– Married twice – first for true
love to the wealthy and educated
Daniel Custis, later for
companionship to GW an
uneducated military man; four
children; two died in childhood
• Liked to focus First Lady position on
entertaining, social events, etc.
Judith Sargent Murray, Abigail
Adams, and others believed in
“Republican Motherhood”
• Believed women should play a
greater role in the new nation
than Martha Washington did
Women in the New Nation
• Others in RM believed that women
played an important role just by
teaching their children to be good
• Some hoped that more women
would receive an education,
because few families provided
much education for their
• Most women in the early
republic managed their
households and worked hard
inside or outside the home to
support their families
Organizing the
Executive Branch
• New government set precedents
– Action or Decision (ex. policies &
procedures) that sets a pattern/example
for the future
• First Congress created departments in
Exec. Branch for every area of policy –
these dept. heads are called cabinet
members – a President’s cabinet serve as
his advisers
• Alexander Hamilton
– Secretary of the Treasury
• Thomas Jefferson
– Secretary of State
Organizing the Government
Judicial Branch - Judiciary Act of 1789
• Passed by Congress to set up the federal court
• Three levels of federal courts & defined powers
• Set up federal district courts and circuit courts
of appeal
• President nominated federal judges (must be
approved or rejected by Senate)
GW – “success of the national govt…depend in…
interpretation & execution of its laws”
America’s Expectations
for the Nation
• U.S. Population in 1790
• 4 million (pop. of Los Angeles)
• RURAL - Most were farmers
• Wanted fair tax laws
• The right to settle western lands
Rural 95%
• URBAN - Merchants, laborers,
and craftspeople
• Wanted help with their businessestrade and foreign competition laws
• Philadelphia and NYC populations >
25,000 people
• New York City
• First Capitol of US
• Trade center and economic hub
• Federal Hall 1797 GW Inauguration
7.2 Hamilton
and National
The Big Ideas
• Treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton
developed a financial plan for the
national government/tackled the
problem of settling national and state
debt (WAR debt)
• Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton’s
views on government and the economy
• Hamilton created a national bank to
strengthen the U.S. economy
Settling the Debt
• Treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton – good
looking, financially smart, wealthy but elitist
• Biggest challenge - paying off the national debt
(money owed by the United States)
• $11.7 million to foreign countries & $40.4
million to U.S. citizens
• Hamilton planned to pay foreign debt first,
and all American bonds debt at full value
• Some politicians, including Thomas Jefferson,
opposed the plan*, but Hamilton went ahead
with it
• *Speculators were buying Americans’ bonds at
cut costs; giving them full value would = profit
States’ Debt
• States’ Owed $25 million in
Revolutionary War expenses
• Hamilton wanted Federal Govt. to pay $21.5
mil of the States’ debts to help the national
economy (develop business,trade)
• South did not want the Federal Government to
pay States’ debts (VA, NC) – called
unconstitutional by some such as Patrick Henry
• 1791 - Won South’s (and Jefferson/Madison’s)
support by getting northern approval to move
the national capital to Philadelphia
• 10 yrs. later capitol is Washington, D.C. (part
Maryland, part Virginia)
Jefferson Opposes Hamilton
– Bro versus Bro
Hamilton’s Views
• Authority - Strong central
• Balance of power between the
“mass of people” and wealthier
citizens (little faith in average
• Economy - Promote
manufacturing & business
• BUY USA! Higher tariffs on
foreign goods to protect
American manufacturers
Jefferson Opposes Hamilton
– Bro versus Bro
Jefferson’s Views
• Authority - Protect the states
• Right of “the people” to rule
the country (and they are
capable enough)
• Economy - Supported
agriculture & farmers –
• Farmers are most independent
voters & self-sustained people
• Lower tariffs to keep costs low
for goods farmers bought
Major Bro Fight - A National Bank
• 1791 - Hamilton wanted national bank in which the
govt. could safely deposit its money
• Bank would also make loans to the govt. and to
businesses, build a mint to issue nation’s own
• He knew that states’ rights supporters would
oppose his idea, so suggested limiting the bank to
a 20-year charter & also have each state start its
own bank
Major Bro Fight – A National Bank
• True Friends: Jefferson &
Madison agreed that
– Economic plans gave too much power
to the national government
– Constitution did not give Congress
the power to create the bank
(Elastic Clause??)
• They favored a Strict
Construction view of the
– Govt. should do only what the
Constitution says it can do
Major Bro Fight – A National Bank
• Hamilton
• Loose Construction of the
• Govt. can take reasonable actions the
Constitution does not specifically
• WINNER! President
Washington & Congress
agreed with Hamilton that it
would provide stability for
the U.S. economy
• The Bank of the United
• Country’s first national bank —
chartered in 1791
7.3 Challenges for the New
The Big Ideas
• The United States faced significant foreign and domestic challenges
under Washington
• The United States tried to remain neutral regarding events in Europe
• The United States and Native Americans came into conflict in the
Northwest Territory
• The Whiskey Rebellion tested Washington’s administration
• In his Farewell Address, Washington advised the
nation – get to that in a second
Remaining Neutral
• July 14, 1789 The French Revolution begins with
the Storming of the Bastille – a real Revolution
with actual oppression being overthrown
– Against the French King/Created a Republican Govt
– Beheaded King Louis XVI and Queen Marie-Antoinette
of “let them eat cake” fame
• France and Great Britain later went to war
• Thomas Jefferson supported the French (helped us
in War) - Hamilton supported strong ties w/British President and others wanted to remain neutral
(believed this was the safest plan for the U.S. in the
long run)
• 1793 - Neutrality Proclamation – U.S. would not
take sides – Madison and others thought this act
unconstitutional without Congressional approval!
Other Challenges to U.S.
Jay’s Treaty – not great work
• 1793 Jefferson resigns from Cabinet
(still mad about France & Hamilton’s
• Now British were seizing American
ships in the French West Indies Washington wanted to prevent
another war; so did the British
• 1794 Jay’s Treaty - Settled disputes
that had arisen between the two
countries in the 1790s
• Unpopular in the United States –
didn’t punish Brits enough
Chief Justice – John Jay
Other Challenges to U.S. Neutrality
Pinckney’s Treaty- pretty good
• Spanish disputed the U.S. and
Florida border
• 1784 Spain closed the New Orleans
port to U.S. trade - Hurt the
American economy
• Pinckney’s Treaty was signed in
• Southern U.S. border was set at 31°
N latitude
Ambassador Thomas Pinckney
• Port of New Orleans reopened, no
cargo fees for US now either!
Conflict in the Northwest Territory
Americans settled in the Northwest Territory
despite Native Americans’ protests – shocker 
Native Americans went to war (supplied by British
traders w guns)
1790 Early Native American victories came under
Chief Little Turtle
1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers – New leader
General Anthony Wayne takes over, Brits stop
helping them, and we win
The Treaty of Greenville
– Ended the war in 1795
– Gave us most Nat American lands in the
Northwest Territory
– Govt. gave them an acknowledgement of
lands they still held and $20,000 in goods
The Whiskey Rebellion
• March 1791: A tax was placed on
American-made whiskey – Hamilton
is testing the Fed power over States
• People in areas like Western
Pennsylvania were angry (think Tea
Party) - govt not giving them enough
protection or trade, can’t afford this,
• Whiskey was a cash crop to western
Pennsylvania farmers
• Cases about the law were tried in
district courts
– often far away from the people
The Whiskey Rebellion
• 1792 – President issues a
proclamation to obey law
• 1794 Rebellion broke out –
tar/feather people, spreads across
states, “New Sons of Liberty”
• Washington enforces w federal
power and then led an army
against the rebels
– Whiskey Rebellion ended
without a battle
Washington Says
• 1796 - Wanted to leave public life
• Wrote Farewell Address to the people
• Warned against greatest dangers to the
- Forming foreign ties that could lead to
choosing sides in Wars
- Warned the nation to work out its political
conflicts at home (growing political parties)
Warned against too much public debt – govt
should not borrow money
***GW “I anticipate…good laws under a free
7.4 John Adams’s Presidency
The Big Ideas
• The development of political parties in the
United States contributed to differing ideas about
the role of the federal government
• The rise of political parties created competition
in the election of 1796
• The XYZ affair caused problems for President
John Adams
• Controversy broke out over the Alien and
Sedition Acts
The Election of 1796
• Political parties began to form in
the 1790s
• Alexander Hamilton helped found
the Federalist Party
– supported a strong federal
• Thomas Jefferson and James
Madison founded the DemocraticRepublican Party
– wanted to limit the power of the
federal government
• The Federalist John Adams
defeated the DemocraticRepublican candidate, Thomas
Jefferson, in 1796 election
• Adams became president, and
Jefferson, vice president
President John Adams
• Had the hard task of
following George
Washington as
president – not a hero,
not as popular
• Leading patriot during
the Revolutionary War
– without the glory
• Later a foreign
President Adams and the XYZ
• Early goal of Adams
– improve relations with France to
have international allys
• U.S. diplomats sent to France
• French foreign minister,
Talleyrand, would not meet them
• Three French agents secretly
demanded a bribe before they
would discuss a treaty with the
• The so-called XYZ Affair outraged
– Led to a call for war with France.
They would pay “millions for
defense, but not one cent for
Preparing for War and Peace
Preparations for War
• Adams asked Congress to expand the navy to more than 30 ships
• He also asked Congress to approve a peacetime army
• However, Adams did not want war with France
Peace Efforts
• Federalists were stunned by Adams’s decision not to go to war
• American and French ships began fighting in the Caribbean
• The United States and France eventually signed a treaty
The Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien and Sedition Acts
• Four laws were passed by the
Federalist-controlled Congress
– Created to crush the DemocraticRepublican opposition to war in
• Sedition Act forbade anyone from
publishing or voicing criticism of the
federal govt. (canceled basic
protections of freedom of speech and
• Jefferson and Madison viewed acts as
a misuse of govt. power
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
• Jefferson and Madison wrote
resolutions passed by the Kentucky
and Virginia legislatures
• Documents argued that the Alien and
Sedition Acts were unconstitutional
• Supported the idea that states could
challenge the federal government –
testing the Fed.’s back as they tested
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