2009 Powerpoint Presentation

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What is the media?
 A brief history of the media
 Is the media free?
 Media in today’s world
 The BBC and other UK media
 Can it be argued that the media have
too much freedom/power?
 Media Democracy

Some definitions:
 Media: An instrument for storing or
communication of information
Or:
 An intervening substance through which
signals can travel as a means for
communication

The media is a form of communication
that comprises of three ways in which
information or data can be delivered:
› The broadcast media which is the television
and radio
› The printed media which the newspapers,
magazines and publishing generally
› The so-called “new media” which is cable,
satellite, the internet and so on
In 1215 the Magna Carta signed also
known as the Charter of Freedoms
 In 1516 the book “The Education of a
Christian Prince” was published
 In 1644 John Milton’s “Areopagitica”
published
 1770, a letter written by Voltaire writes, “I
detest what you write but I would give
my life to make it possible for you to
continue to write”
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In 1859, John Stuart Mill’s, “On Liberty” published as is
Darwin’s controversial “On the Origin of Species”
1918-1945 saw two world wars and a rapid rise in the
use of media
In 1960, Penguin wins the right to publish “Lady
Chatterley’s Lover”
In 1963 the Profumo affair scandal
In 1997 the death of Princess Diana
In 2002 a Nigerian journalist writes about the prophet
Mohammed leading to riots and 200 people dead
In 2004 a Dutch film maker is killed for releasing a film
about the violence against women in Islamic
societies
“I fear the newspapers more than a
hundred thousand bayonets” (Napoleon
Bonaparte)
 “When communication systems are
subject to formal political control as in
states socialist, fascist or authoritarian
regimes – the media becomes little more
than a propaganda machine”
(Heywood, A, Key Concepts in Politics
p211)

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“Everyone has the right to freedom of
opinion and expression; this right includes
freedom to hold opinions without
interference, and impart information and
ideas through any media regardless of
frontiers” The Universal Declaration of
Human Rights
1
6
7
9
10
11
13
16
17
18
19
20
23
24
25
Denmark
Finland
Ireland
Norway
Sweden
Estonia
Netherlands
Switzerland
Iceland
Lithuania
Belgium
Malta
Austria
Latvia
New Zealand
Australia
Japan
Germany
Canada
Luxembourg
United
Kingdom
United States
of America
Jamaica
Czech
Republic
Cyprus
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,50
1,00
1,00
2,00
2,25
2,50
2,50
3,00
3,00
3,00
3,13
3,25
3,50
3,70
4,00
4,00
4,00
4,75
5,00
5,50
Reporters
without
borders:
http://www.rsf.
org/enclassement1003
-2009.html
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The BBC is the only broadcasting company
in the UK publicly owned
The BBC is controlled by a committee which
is appointed by the home secretary
This board of governors also appoints a
Director General who has day to day
control of the BBC
In 2003, the Iraq Dossier and David Kelly
brought fresh allegations of government
control of the BBC
The Question Time appearance of Nick
Griffin
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It can be argued that the media exerts too much
control over the direction of the political agenda
to suit the interest of the unelected bodies that
control them i.e. Murdoch
They drive agendas i.e. climate change has
become trendy, the chief of Social Services in
Haringey was sacked by the home secretary over
Baby P, and the growing popularity in the media of
David Cameron and his “fashionable” wife
It could be argued it is the press that the public
look onto as their representative holding the
government to account not the members of
Parliament
“The concept of “democratising the media” has
no real meaning within the terms of the
political discourse in the United States. In fact,
the phrase has a paradoxical or even vaguely
subversive ring to it. Citizen participation would
be considered an infringement on freedom of
the press, a blow struck against the
independence of the media that would distort
the mission they have undertaken to inform the
public without fear or favour…this is because
the general public must be reduced to its
traditional apathy and obedience, and driven
from the arena of political debate and action,
if democracy is to survive” (Noam Chomsky)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0K
2pLo8JV5Y&feature=related
“Let it be impressed upon your
minds, let it be instilled into
your children, that the liberty
of the press is the palladium of
all the civil, political, and
religious rights.” (Junius)
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